Smallholder forest conversion in New Guinea. (Photo by R. Butler)
RESTORING RAINFORESTS:By Rhett Butler
| Last updated July 22, 2012
INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY AND REHABILITATING DEGRADED HABITATS
In reducing the loss of tropical rainforests, we must not only be concerned with the transformation of existing
natural ecosystems, but also with the more rational utilization of already cleared and degraded areas. To lessen future
forest loss we must increase and sustain the productivity of farms, pastures, plantations, and scrub land in addition
to restoring species and ecosystems to degraded habitats. By reducing wasteful land-use practices, consolidating
gains on existing cleared lands, and improving already developed lands we can diminish the need to clear additional
Increasing productivity of cleared rainforest lands is possible using improved technology to generate higher yielding
crops. Taking advantage of improved germ plasm developed through careful selection can produce grasses and crops
that will grow on degraded forest soils. While technology may have accelerated the development and impoverishment
of tropical rainforests, it will be one of the keys to saving them.
More articles on degraded lands >>
HABITAT AND SPECIES REHABILITATION
There is still time to save some of the most threatened species and ecosystems that have been pushed so close to
extinction that they will perish unless we intervene. We can make a positive difference in preserving a species
that mankind has practically destroyed. One of the most heart-warming examples is the story of the Mauritius kestrel. However,
saving a single species takes incredible time and resources and can hardly be a practical solution. Instead the
concentration must be on saving and restoring entire ecosystems.
The restoration of entire ecosystems is most possible in regions where parts or at least remnants of the original
forest still remain and there are few human population pressures. Small clearings surrounded by forest recover
quickly and large sections may recover in time, especially if we provide some assistance in the reforestation process.
After several years, a once-barren field can again support vegetation in the form of pioneer species and secondary
growth. Although the secondary forest will be low in diversity and poorly developed, the forest cover will be adequate
for some species to return (assuming they still exist). In addition, the newly forested patch can be used for the
sustainable harvest of forest products and low-intensity logging.
Tracts of replanted forest may have ecological returns in addition to economic ones. In the short term, forests
absorb large amounts of atmospheric carbon and the more trees that are replanted, the more atmospheric carbon will
be sequestered. Replanting and rehabilitating secondary forests around the world has tremendous potential for offsetting
greenhouse-gas emissions. One such project, known as INFAPRO, has been established in Malaysia in a cooperative
venture between the FACE Foundation (Forest Absorbing Carbon Emissions) and the Innoprise Corporation. The objective
of the project is to rehabilitate 61,000 acres (25,000 ha) of logged rainforest over 25 years using dipterocarps,
forest fruit, and pioneer trees. The project uses the technique of enrichment planting where seedlings are planted
in the understory of degraded forest and given preferential treatment to ensure growth.
One promising area of research looks at ancient societies that lived in the Amazon rainforest before the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century. Apparently these populations were able to enrich the rainforest soil, which is usually quite poor, using charcoal and animal bones. By improving soil quality, large areas of the Amazon that have been deforested could be used to support agriculture. This could help reduce pressure on rainforest areas for agricultural land. Further, the "terra preta" soil could be used to help fight global warming since it absorbs carbon dioxide, an important greenhouse gas.
Birds and bats may help restore tropical forests September 27, 2005
Scientists believe they may have found a way to regrow tropical forest on deforested lands. The plan would involve planting fast-growing, fruit-producing trees, like figs, in the formerly forested areas. These trees would attract birds and bats which would deposit seeds from nearby forests onto the ground below. The dropping of these seeds would, in effect, return native forest species to the deforested patch. Scientists will test the theory in Veracruz, Mexico, to see if coaxing birds and bats back into the area will help restore the forest's biodiversity.
More articles on terra preta >>
- Why is increasing productivity on deforested lands important for rainforest conservation?
- How do birds and bats help in habitat rainforest regeneration?
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Selection of information sources
The backlash against genetically modified foods is outlined by the World Wildlife Fund and Kilman, S. and Burton, T.M., "Monsanto boss's vision of 'life sciences' firm now confronts reality," The Wall Street Journal 12/21/99.
Increasing productivity on degraded forest lands is discussed in Plucknett, Donald L. and N.L.H. Smith, "Sustaining agricultural yields: As productivity rises, maintenance research is needed to uphold the gains," Bioscience 36: 40-45, 1986; T. Nishizawa and J. I. Uitto, eds. (The Fragile Tropics of Latin America: Sustainable Management of Changing Environments, New York: United Nations University Press, 1995); Smith, N.J.H. et al., Amazonia - Resiliency and Dynamism of the Land and its People, New York: United Nations University Press, 1995; and Dobson, A.P., A.D. Bradshaw, A.J.M. Baker, "Hopes for the Future: Restoration Ecology and Conservation Biology," Science 277: 515-522, July 25, 1997.
The rehabilitation of the Mauritius Kestrel is discussed in Peregrine Falcon Fund 1996, D. Adams and M. Carwardine in Last Chance to See (New York: Harmony Books, 1991), and Quammen, D. (The Song of the Dodo, New York: Scribner,
The reforestation effort of the Rio de Norte Mining Company is reported in Astor, M., "Rio do Norte's reforestation effort in Amazon focuses on replenishment," A.P. August 19, 1999.
Offsetting greenhouse gas emissions by replanting and rehabilitating secondary forests is reviewed in Houghton, R.A., "Tropical deforestation and atmospheric carbon dioxide," in Tropical Forests and Climate Change, ed N. Myers, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1983; Houghton, R.A., "Converting terrestrial ecosystems from sources to sinks of carbon" Ambio Vol. 25 No. 4, June 1996; and Costa, P.M., "Tropical forestry practices for carbon sequestration: a review and case study from southeast Asia," Ambio Vol. 25 No. 4, June 1996. However this ability of forests to serve as a net carbon sink has been criticized of late by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) (B. Scholes, "Will the terrestrial carbon sink saturate soon?" Global Change NewsLetter No. 37:2-3, March 1999) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (R. Watson et al. IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land Use Changes, and Forestry, 1999).
Costa, P.M. ("Tropical forestry practices for carbon sequestration: a review and case study from southeast Asia," Ambio Vol. 25 No. 4, June 1996) discusses the FACE project.
Next big idea in forest conservation? Quantifying the cost of forest degradation
(03/27/2014) How much is a forest really worth? And what is the cost of forest degradation? These values are difficult to estimate, but according to Dr. Phillip Fearnside, we need to do a better job. For nearly forty years, Fearnside has lived in Amazonia doing ecological research, looking at the value of forests in terms of environmental or ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water cycling, and biodiversity preservation. Fearnside then works to convert these services into a basis for sustainable development for rural populations.
WALHI Jambi: Forestry giant allegedly evaded $15m in taxes
(01/16/2014) Sinar Mas Group allegedly defrauded the Indonesian government of $15 million by avoiding reforestation taxes on 2,000 hectares in Jambi province. The land is reportedly managed by subsidiaries of Sinar Mas Group which do not have the proper concession permits. The discovery came after analysis of public reports and an audit conducted last year by BPK (The Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia), as reported by the non-profit Indonesian Forum for the Environment (WALHI), an Indonesian affiliate of Friends of the Earth.
Next big idea in forest conservation? Integrating forest conservation, use, and restoration
(01/10/2014) The next big idea is to integrate the social and natural components of forest conservation, use of forest products, and restoration. In reality, these aspects are completely intertwined, but in practice they are completely separated. I believe (along with many others) that the scale at which we can begin to integrate these components is at the landscape scale.
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