Forest CoverTotal forest area: 3,636,000 ha % of land area: 25.4%
Primary forest cover: 349,000 ha % of land area: 2.4% % total forest area: 9.6%
Deforestation Rates, 2000-2005Annual change in forest cover: -52,800 ha Annual deforestation rate: -1.4% Change in defor. rate since '90s: -28.9% Total forest loss since 1990: -1,181,000 ha Total forest loss since 1990:-24.5%
Primary or "Old-growth" forests Annual loss of primary forests: -7000 ha Annual deforestation rate: -1.8% Change in deforestation rate since '90s: 918.2% Primary forest loss since 1990: -35,000 ha Primary forest loss since 1990:-10.7%
Forest ClassificationPublic: 99.9% Private: 0.1% Other: n/a Use Production: 5.1% Protection: 12.1% Conservation: 21.4% Social services: n/a Multiple purpose: 14.7% None or unknown: 46.8
Forest Area BreakdownTotal area: 3,636,000 ha Primary: 349,000 ha Modified natural: 384,000 ha Semi-natural: 2,850,000 ha Production plantation: 43,000 ha Production plantation: 10,000 ha
PlantationsPlantations, 2005: 53,000 ha % of total forest cover: 1.5% Annual change rate (00-05): 200,000 ha
Carbon storageAbove-ground biomass: 718 M t Below-ground biomass: 251 M t
Area annually affected byFire: 400,000 ha Insects: n/a Diseases: n/a
Number of tree species in IUCN red listNumber of native tree species: 225 Critically endangered: 0 Endangered: 0 Vulnerable: 3
Nepal is one of the world's most diverse, yet poorest, countries. High population pressures have led to deforestation on steep mountain slopes, causing massive soil erosion and flooding on the plains. Only a small portion of Nepal was ever covered by rainforests, but what does exist is threatened by fuelwood collection and subsistence agriculture.
Between 1990 and 2005, Nepal lost 1.2 million hectares of forest representing about 25 percent of its total forest cover. Primary forest cover was diminished as well, falling by nearly 11 percent during that period. While overall deforestation rates have fallen since the close of the 1990s, rates of primary forest loss have jumped significantly.
Nepal has some 1,240 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles, according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 2.9 percent are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.6 percent are threatened. Nepal is home to at least 6,973 species of vascular plants, of which 4.5 percent are endemic. On paper, 7.6 percent of Nepal is protected under IUCN categories I-V.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated from mongabay.com operations (server, data transfer, travel) are mitigated through an association with Anthrotect,
an organization working with Afro-indigenous and Embera communities to protect forests in Colombia's Darien region. Anthrotect is protecting the habitat of mongabay's mascot: the scale-crested pygmy tyrant.
"Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site. "Jungle" is generally not used.