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Amazon Amphibians

By Rhett Butler   |  Last updated 2016-Jan-23

Frogs are overwhelmingly the most abundant amphibians in the rainforest.



  • More than 1000 species of frogs are found in the Amazon Basin.
  • Unlike temperate frogs which are mostly limited to habitats near water, tropical frogs are most abundant in the trees and relatively few are found near bodies of water on the forest floor. The reason for this occurrence is quite simple: frogs must always keep their skin moist since almost half of their respiration in carried out through their skin. The high humidity of the rainforest and frequent rainstorms gives tropical frogs infinitely more freedom to move into the trees and escape the many predators of rainforest waters. The differences between temperate and tropical frogs extend beyond their habitat. Whereas nearly all temperate frogs lay their eggs in water, the majority of rainforest species place eggs in vegetation or lay them in the ground. By leaving the water, frogs avoid egg-predators like fish, shrimp, aquatic insects, and insect larvae.
  • Among the best known of rainforest amphibians are the tiny, but brilliantly colored poison dart (arrow) frogs [members of the Dendrobatidae family]. These striking but slow-moving frogs secrete powerful toxins from glands on their backs and use their color to advertise their toxic composition to potential predators. Their toxins are derived from the invertebrates they eat.
  • The Amazon is home to the world's largest caecilian, a limbless amphibian that resembles an earthworm. The species, Atretochoana eiselti, has been playfully dubbed "the penis snake" for its resemblance to part of the male anatomy. Pictures of Amazonian Amphibians:


    List of selected amphibians from the greater Amazon region

    Note: this list is not comprehensive. Some species may live outside the Amazon rainforest biome.
    Scientific NameCommon nameFamilyOrderIUCN Red List Status
    Adenomera andreaeLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Adenomera heyeriLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Adenomera hylaedactylaLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Allobates brunneusDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Allobates femoralisDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Allobates marchesianusDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Allobates sumtuosusDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsData Deficient (DD)
    Allophryne ruthveniTukeit-Hill FrogAllophrynidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Amazophrynella minutaBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Ameerega hahneliDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Ameerega parvulaRuby Poison FrogDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Ameerega pictaDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Ameerega trivittataThree-striped Poison FrogDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Atelopus flavescensBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsVulnerable (VU)
    Atelopus hoogmoediBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Atelopus pachydermusBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsCritically Endangered (CR)
    Atelopus spumariusBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsVulnerable (VU)
    Bolitoglossa altamazonicaPlethodontidaeCaudata - salamanders and newtsLeast Concern (LC)
    Caecilia leucocephalaCaeciliidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Caecilia tentaculataCaeciliidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Centrolene buckleyiCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsVulnerable (VU)
    Ceratophrys cornutaSurinam Horned FrogCeratophryidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Chiasmocleis bassleriMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Chiasmocleis haddadiMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Chiasmocleis hudsoniMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Chiasmocleis shudikarensisMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Chiasmocleis ventrimaculataMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Cochranella resplendensCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Cruziohyla craspedopusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Ctenophryne geayiMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendrobates leucomelasYellow-headed Poison FrogDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendrobates tinctoriusDyeing Poison FrogDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus acreanusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus bifurcusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus bokermanniHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus brevifronsHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus counaniHylidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Dendropsophus gaucheriHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus haraldschultziHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus koechliniKoechlin's treefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus lealiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus leucophyllatusClown Tree FrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus marmoratusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus melanargyreusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus microcephalusYellow TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus minusculusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus minutusLesser TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus miyataiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus parvicepsHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus rhodopeplusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus riveroiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus rossalleniHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus sarayacuensisSarayacu TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus schubartiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dendropsophus triangulumHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Dryaderces pearsoniHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Ecnomiohyla tuberculosaHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Edalorhina pereziPerez's Snouted FrogLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Elachistocleis ovalisMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Eleutherodactylus johnstoneiJohnstone's Whistling FrogEleutherodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Engystomops petersiLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Epicrionops bicolorRhinatrematidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Gastrotheca testudineaHemiphractidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Gastrotheca weinlandiiHemiphractidaeAnura - frogs and toadsData Deficient (DD)
    Hamptophryne bolivianaMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hemiphractus helioiHemiphractidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hemiphractus johnsoniHemiphractidaeAnura - frogs and toadsEndangered (EN)
    Hemiphractus proboscideusSumaco Horned TreefrogHemiphractidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hemiphractus scutatusHemiphractidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hyalinobatrachium cappelleiCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanniFleischmann's glass frogCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hyalinobatrachium iaspidienseCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsData Deficient (DD)
    Hyalinobatrachium mondolfiiCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hyalinobatrachium munozorumCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hyalinobatrachium tayloriCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hydrolaetare schmidtiLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hyloscirtus phyllognathusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypodactylus nigrovittatusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas albomarginatusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas boansHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas calcaratusConvict TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas cinerascensHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas crepitansHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas fasciatusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas geographicusMap TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas lanciformisHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas microdermaHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas multifasciatusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas nymphaHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas ornatissimusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas pellucensHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas punctatusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Hypsiboas ranicepsHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus bolivianusRana-Sapo bolivianoLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus didymusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus diedrusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus discodactylusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus fuscusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus guianensisLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Leptodactylus knudseniKnudsen's thin-toed frogLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus leptodactyloidesLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus longirostrisLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus macrosternumLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Leptodactylus myersiMyers' thin-toed frogLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus mystaceusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus pentadactylusSmoky Jungle FrogLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus petersiiLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus rhodomystaxLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus rhodonotusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus rugosusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus stenodemaLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus validusGarman's thin-toed frogLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Leptodactylus wagneriLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Lithodytes lineatusLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Lysapsus laevisHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Nymphargus posadaeCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsVulnerable (VU)
    Nymphargus sirenCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsVulnerable (VU)
    Oreobates quixensisStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Oscaecilia bassleriCaeciliidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Osteocephalus buckleyiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Osteocephalus cabreraiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Osteocephalus leprieuriiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Osteocephalus planicepsHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Osteocephalus taurinusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Osteocephalus verrucigerHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Osteocephalus yasuniHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Otophryne pyburniPyburn's Pancake FrogMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa bicolorWaxy-Monkey TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa cambaHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa hypochondrialisHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa palliataHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa tarsiusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa tomopternaTiger-striped Leaf FrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa trinitatisHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Phyllomedusa vaillantiiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pipa arrabaliPipidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pipa pipaSurinam toadPipidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pipa snethlageaePipidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pleurodema brachyopsLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Potamotyphlus kaupiiTyphlonectidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis altamazonicusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis carvalhoiStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis chiastonotusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis conspicillatusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis croceoinguinisStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis diadematusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis fenestratusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis gutturalisStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis lacrimosusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis lanthanitesStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis malkiniStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis marmoratusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis martiaeStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis ockendeniStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis peruvianusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis skydmainosStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis toftaeStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis variabilisStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pristimantis ventrimarmoratusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pseudis paradoxaParadoxical FrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Pseudopaludicola pusillaLeptodactylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rana catesbeianaBullfrogRanidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rana palmipesRanidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Ranitomeya ventrimaculataDendrobatidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhaebo ecuadorensisBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Rhaebo guttatusBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinatrema bivittatumRhinatrematidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella castaneoticaBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella ceratophrysBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella dapsilisBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella margaritiferaBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella marinaCane ToadBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella martyiBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella merianaeBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Rhinella poeppigiiBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella roqueanaBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Rhinella spinulosaBufonidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scarthyla goinorumHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scientific NameVernacular NameFamilyOrderIUCN Red List Status
    Scinax boesemaniHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax fuscomarginatusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax garbeiHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax nebulosusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax pedromedinaeHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax proboscideusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax rostratusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax ruberHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Scinax x-signatusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Siphonops annulatusRinged CaecilianSiphonopidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Sphaenorhynchus carneusHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Sphaenorhynchus dorisaeHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Sphaenorhynchus lacteusOrinoco Lime TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Strabomantis sulcatusStrabomantidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Synapturanus mirandaribeiroiMicrohylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Teratohyla midasSanta Cecilia Cochran frogCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Trachycephalus coriaceusSurinam Goldeneye Tree FrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Trachycephalus cunauaruHylidaeAnura - frogs and toads
    Trachycephalus hadrocepsHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Trachycephalus jordaniHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Trachycephalus resinifictrixBoatman frogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Trachycephalus typhoniusPepper TreefrogHylidaeAnura - frogs and toadsLeast Concern (LC)
    Typhlonectes compressicaudaTyphlonectidaeGymnophiona - caeciliansLeast Concern (LC)
    Vitreorana ritaeRita's Cochran FrogCentrolenidaeAnura - frogs and toadsData Deficient (DD)