TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation

Deforestation Figures for Selected Countries



Countries

Afghanistan  |   Albania  |   Algeria  |   American Samoa  |   Andorra  |   Angola  |   Anguilla  |   Antigua and Barbuda  |   Argentina  |   Armenia  |   Aruba  |   Australia  |   Austria  |   Azerbaijan  |   Bahamas  |   Bahrain  |   Bangladesh  |   Barbados  |   Belarus  |   Belgium  |   Belize  |   Benin  |   Bermuda  |   Bhutan  |   Bolivia  |   Bosnia and Herzegovina  |   Botswana  |   Brazil  |   Brunei  |   Brunei Darussalam  |   Bulgaria  |   Burkina Faso  |   Burundi  |   Cambodia  |   Cameroon  |   Canada  |   Cape Verde  |   Caribbean  |   Cayman Islands  |   Central African Republic  |   Central America  |   Chad  |   Chile  |   China  |   Colombia  |   Comoros  |   Congo  |   Costa Rica  |   Cote díIvoire  |   Croatia  |   Cuba  |   Cyprus  |   Czech Republic  |   Denmark  |   Djibouti  |   Dominica  |   Dominican Republic  |   DR Congo  |   East Timor  |   Ecuador  |   Egypt  |   El Salvador  |   Equatorial Guinea  |   Eritrea  |   Estonia  |   Ethiopia  |   Falkland Islands  |   Fiji  |   Finland  |   France  |   French Guiana  |   French Polynesia  |   Gabon  |   Gambia  |   Georgia  |   Germany  |   Ghana  |   Greece  |   Greenland  |   Grenada  |   Guadeloupe  |   Guam  |   Guatemala  |   Guinea  |   Guinea-Bissau  |   Guyana  |   Haiti  |   Honduras  |   Hong Kong  |   Hungary  |   Iceland  |   India  |   Indonesia  |   Iran  |   Iraq  |   Ireland  |   Israel  |   Italy  |   Jamaica  |   Japan  |   Jersey  |   Jordan  |   Kazakhstan  |   Kenya  |   Kiribati  |   Kuwait  |   Kyrgyzstan  |   Laos  |   Laos  |   Latvia  |   Lebanon  |   Lesotho  |   Liberia  |   Libya  |   Liechtenstein  |   Lithuania  |   Luxembourg  |   Macau  |   Macedonia  |   Madagascar  |   Malawi  |   Malaysia  |   Maldives  |   Mali  |   Malta  |   Marshall Islands  |   Martinique  |   Mauritania  |   Mauritius  |   Mayotte  |   Mexico  |   Micronesia  |   Moldova  |   Monaco  |   Mongolia  |   Montserrat  |   Morocco  |   Mozambique  |   Myanmar  |   Namibia  |   Nauru  |   Nepal  |   Netherlands  |   Netherlands Antilles  |   New Caledonia  |   New Zealand  |   Nicaragua  |   Niger  |   Nigeria  |   North Korea  |   Northern Mariana Islands  |   Norway  |   Oceania  |   Oman  |   Pakistan  |   Palau  |   Palestine  |   Panama  |   Papua New Guinea  |   Paraguay  |   Peru  |   Philippines  |   Pitcairn  |   Poland  |   Portugal  |   Puerto Rico  |   Qatar  |   Reunion  |   Romania  |   Russia  |   Russian Federation  |   Rwanda  |   Saint Helena  |   Saint Lucia  |   Samoa  |   San Marino  |   Sao Tome and Principe  |   Saudi Arabia  |   Senegal  |   Serbia and Montenegro  |   Seychelles  |   Sierra Leone  |   Singapore  |   Slovakia  |   Slovenia  |   Solomon Islands  |   Somalia  |   South Africa  |   South America  |   South Korea  |   Spain  |   Sri Lanka  |   Sudan  |   Suriname  |   Swaziland  |   Sweden  |   Switzerland  |   Syria  |   Taiwan  |   Tajikistan  |   Tanzania  |   Thailand  |   Timor-Leste  |   Togo  |   Tokelau  |   Tonga  |   Trinidad and Tobago  |   Tunisia  |   Turkey  |   Turkmenistan  |   Turks and Caicos Islands  |   Tuvalu  |   Uganda  |   Ukraine  |   United Arab Emirates  |   United Kingdom  |   United States  |   United States of America  |   United States Virgin Islands  |   Uruguay  |   Uzbekistan  |   Vanuatu  |   Venezuela  |   Viet Nam  |   Vietnam  |   Virgin Islands  |   Western Sahara  |   Yemen  |   Zambia  |   Zimbabwe

Deforestation figures and charts
Summarized forest cover data including emissions from deforestation (when available)

Afghanistan  |   Albania  |   Algeria  |   American Samoa  |   Andorra  |   Angola  |   Anguilla  |   Antigua and Barbuda  |   Argentina  |   Armenia  |   Aruba  |   Australia  |   Austria  |   Azerbaijan  |   Bahamas  |   Bahrain  |   Bangladesh  |   Barbados  |   Belarus  |   Belgium  |   Belize  |   Benin  |   Bermuda  |   Bhutan  |   Bolivia  |   Bosnia and Herzegovina  |   Botswana  |   Brazil  |   British Indian Ocean Territory  |   British Virgin Islands  |   Brunei Darussalam  |   Bulgaria  |   Burkina Faso  |   Burundi  |   Cambodia  |   Cameroon  |   Canada  |   Cape Verde  |   Cayman Islands  |   Central African Republic  |   Chad  |   Channel Islands  |   Chile  |   China  |   Colombia  |   Comoros  |   Congo  |   Cook Islands  |   Costa Rica  |   Côte d'Ivoire  |   Croatia  |   Cuba  |   Cyprus  |   Czech Republic  |   Democratic Republic of the Congo  |   Denmark  |   Djibouti  |   Dominica  |   Dominican Republic  |   Ecuador  |   Egypt  |   El Salvador  |   Equatorial Guinea  |   Eritrea  |   Estonia  |   Ethiopia  |   Faeroe Islands  |   Falkland Islands  |   Fiji  |   Finland  |   France  |   French Guiana  |   French Polynesia  |   Gabon  |   Gambia  |   Georgia  |   Germany  |   Ghana  |   Gibraltar  |   Greece  |   Greenland  |   Grenada  |   Guadeloupe  |   Guam  |   Guatemala  |   Guinea  |   Guinea-Bissau  |   Guyana  |   Haiti  |   Holy See  |   Honduras  |   Hungary  |   Iceland  |   India  |   Indonesia  |   Iran  |   Iraq  |   Ireland  |   Isle of Man  |   Israel  |   Italy  |   Jamaica  |   Japan  |   Jordan  |   Kazakhstan  |   Kenya  |   Kiribati  |   Kuwait  |   Kyrgyzstan  |   Laos  |   Latvia  |   Lebanon  |   Lesotho  |   Liberia  |   Libya  |   Liechtenstein  |   Lithuania  |   Luxembourg  |   Macedonia  |   Madagascar  |   Malawi  |   Malaysia  |   Maldives  |   Mali  |   Malta  |   Marshall Islands  |   Martinique  |   Mauritania  |   Mauritius  |   Mayotte  |   Mexico  |   Micronesia  |   Moldova  |   Monaco  |   Mongolia  |   Montserrat  |   Morocco  |   Mozambique  |   Myanmar  |   Namibia  |   Nauru  |   Nepal  |   Netherlands  |   Netherlands Antilles  |   New Caledonia  |   New Zealand  |   Nicaragua  |   Niger  |   Nigeria  |   Niue  |   North Korea  |   Northern Mariana Islands  |   Norway  |   Oman  |   Pakistan  |   Palau  |   Palestine  |   Panama  |   Papua New Guinea  |   Paraguay  |   Peru  |   Philippines  |   Pitcairn  |   Poland  |   Portugal  |   Puerto Rico  |   Qatar  |   Réunion  |   Romania  |   Russian Federation  |   Rwanda  |   Saint Helena  |   Saint Kitts and Nevis  |   Saint Lucia  |   Saint Pierre and Miquelon  |   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  |   Samoa  |   San Marino  |   Sao Tome and Principe  |   Saudi Arabia  |   Senegal  |   Serbia and Montenegro  |   Seychelles  |   Sierra Leone  |   Singapore  |   Slovakia  |   Slovenia  |   Solomon Islands  |   Somalia  |   South Africa  |   South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands  |   South Korea  |   Spain  |   Sri Lanka  |   Sudan  |   Suriname  |   Swaziland  |   Sweden  |   Switzerland  |   Syrian Arab Republic  |   Tajikistan  |   Tanzania  |   Thailand  |   Timor-Leste  |   Togo  |   Tokelau  |   Tonga  |   Trinidad and Tobago  |   Tunisia  |   Turkey  |   Turkmenistan  |   Turks and Caicos Islands  |   Tuvalu  |   Uganda  |   Ukraine  |   United Arab Emirates  |   United Kingdom  |   United States  |   United States Virgin Islands  |   Uruguay  |   Uzbekistan  |   Vanuatu  |   Venezuela  |   Viet Nam  |   Wallis and Futuna Islands  |   Western Sahara  |   Yemen  |   Zambia  |   Zimbabwe

Recent deforestation news articles
[from the deforestation blog]

Developing land without approval of local people 'a human rights issue of grave concern,' says new report

(11/20/2014) Throughout the tropics, staggering amounts of land have been designated for natural resource extraction—as much as 40 percent of Peru, 30 percent of Indonesia and 35 percent of Liberia. However, much of this land is already in use; it is being inhabited by local communities and indigenous peoples. And while it is possible to live on and extract resources from the same land, when local communities are not consulted in this exchange, conflict may erupt.


Indonesian government slow to reclaim lands damaged by coal mining

(11/20/2014) Reclamation of over 830,000 hectares of abandoned mines has yet to begin in East Kalimantan, Indonesia--despite a provincial law passed over a year ago mandating the formation of commission to oversee the process.


Conflict-fueled deforestation, poaching in Assam continue despite truce

(11/19/2014) Northeastern India boasts nearly 44 percent of the country’s dense forests, and contains one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. However, the region lost approximately 548,440 hectares of tree cover—more than 3 percent—from 2001 through 2012. Sonitpur, Assam, has been particularly hard hit as people flooded into the area and cleared forest.


Palm oil interest surges in Papua New Guinea

(11/19/2014) As the lands of traditional palm oil powerhouses like Indonesia and Malaysia have become saturated with plantations, companies looking to profit have turned to vast areas of seemingly untouched tropical forest in other parts of the world – places like Papua New Guinea. But, in fact, say advocates of local communities, those forests often support the lives and livelihoods of millions of people who must have their rights taken into account.


Ending deforestation won't stop carbon emissions from land use change

(11/17/2014) Even if the world stopped cutting down forests, carbon dioxide emissions from land use change would still pose a major challenge, according to a new paper in Nature Climate Change. The research finds that eliminating deforestation would mean agriculture would be pushed into non-forest ecosystems and still release significant quantities of carbon dioxide.


Palm oil giant suspends supplier over deforestation allegations

(11/17/2014) Palm oil giant Musim Mas Group has suspended purchases from the PT Pati Sari mill over allegations that the facility is processing fruit illegally grown within a biodiversity hotspot in Sumatra, reports the Rainforest Action Network (RAN), which recently published an investigation on the mill's sourcing practices.


Brazilian government silent as deforestation rises in the Amazon

(11/17/2014) Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon continues to outpace last year's rate by a significant margin, reveals data released today by Imazon, a Brazilian non-profit. Imazon's analysis of satellite data shows that for the 3-month period ended October 31, 2014, deforestation is running 226 percent of last year's rate. Forest degradation, which often precedes outright clearing, is pacing 691 percent ahead of last year.


UN to promote RSPO-certified palm oil as conservation solution

(11/14/2014) The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has signed an agreement with the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) to promote eco-certified palm oil as part of the broader effort to conserve biodiversity.


Man plants forest, becomes film star

(11/14/2014) Jadav “Molai” Payeng is a 51-year-old man who lives in India’s north-eastern state of Assam in the village of Aruna Chapori. A member of Assam’s indigenous Mising tribe, Payeng is better known as the “Forest Man" for spending the last 35 years planting a forest bigger than New York City's Central Park.


Surprising reasons to be optimistic about saving forests

(11/14/2014) In the 1990s, the world watched with alarm as vast tracts of tropical rainforest were torn down for timber and croplands, dug up for minerals and energy, and flooded for hydroelectric projects. Conservation groups, governments, philanthropists, and institutions like the World Bank collectively spent billions of dollars on programs to stop the carnage. But as viewed from satellites high above Earth's surface, those efforts barely dented deforestation rates.


One man plants forest larger than Central Park

(11/13/2014) Jadav “Molai” Payeng resides in northeast Assam’s Jorhat district in the village of Aruna Chapori. Here, for the past 35 years, he has worked to plant trees on a sandbar island in the river near his home—and in the process, single-handedly established a forest larger than New York City’s Central Park.


Australia's small rainforest conservation steps overshadowed by broader assault on environment (commentary)

(11/13/2014) On the eve of the World Parks Congress in Sydney, the Australian government has just hosted the 'Asia-Pacific Rainforest Summit', a two-day event that brought together political leaders, academics, environmental managers and NGO staff in an effort to devise strategies to conserve endangered forests in the Asia-Pacific region. Here, Bill Laurance, a leading rainforest researcher, takes a critical look at the event.


Reducing deforestation is good for business, argues report

(11/12/2014) Some of the world's largest companies are making progress in disclosing and addressing deforestation risk within their commodity supply chains, but much work is left to be done to shift to more sustainable practices, argues a new report from the Climate Disclosure Project.


Mapping mistake leaves wildlife at risk

(11/12/2014) Scientists have discovered a new, endangered plant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in an area that is supposed to be protected as a reserve. However, mapping errors effectively moved the reserve’s boundaries 50 kilometers to the west, opening up the region and its vulnerable wildlife to human disturbance.


Local people are not the enemy: real conservation from the frontlines

(11/12/2014) Saving one of the world's most endangered primates means re-thinking conservation. When Noga Shanee and her colleagues first arrived in Northeastern Peru on a research trip to study the yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Oreonax flavicauda), she was shocked by what she observed.


‘Militarized occupation’: local communities pay the price for palm oil

(11/11/2014) There’s little doubt that the use of palm oil is expanding rapidly throughout the world, and with it the need for millions of hectares of land to grow oil palm trees. The results can be devastating for local communities who depend on the agriculture and forests that these lands support. A recent report catalogs the issues that arise with oil palm expansion.


New birds arise due to emigration not separation

(11/11/2014) A bird's eye view of speciation in the Neotropics. How long does it take for a new species to develop? Not long, it turns out. In fact, only a few thousand years — an evolutionary blink of an eye. A recent article published in Nature tracked neotropical bird speciation, or the process by which new species emerge.


Peru has massive opportunity to avoid emissions from deforestation

(11/10/2014) Nearly a billion tons of carbon in Peru's rainforests is at risk from logging, infrastructure projects, and oil and gas extraction, yet opportunities remain to conserve massive amounts of forest in indigenous territories, parks, and unprotected areas, finds a study published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).


Will merging competing ministries help save Indonesia's forests?

(11/10/2014) Newly elected Indonesian president Joko 'Jokowi' Widodo announced on October 26th that the Ministry of Forests and the Ministry of Environment would be combined and that Siti Nurbaya would become Forests and Environment Minister. The move was part of Jokowi’s appointment of 34 cabinet level positions, ranging from Foreign Minister to Religious Affairs Minister.


Human infections by 'monkey malaria' increasing as forests disappear

(11/10/2014) 68% of malaria hospitalizations in Malaysia last year were caused by a once-rare strain of the disease traditionally limited to macaque monkeys. However, as deforestation has put humans and wild animals in closer proximity, Plasmodium knowlesi infections and deaths have increased rapidly. The strain is now responsible for three times the severe malaria infections in Malaysian Borneo than P. falciparum—the world's deadliest form of the parasite.


New laws may turn Brazil's forests into mines

(11/07/2014) With the world’s largest system of protected areas and a 70 percent drop in the deforestation rate of the Amazon over the past decade, Brazil has made huge strides in safeguarding what’s left of its wilderness. However, this progress now hangs in the balance, with new laws threatening to turn many of the country’s protected areas into mines and dams.


Indigenous uprising earned tribe territories, but greatest challenges lie ahead

(11/06/2014) In 1925, Nele Kantule led a revolution that would make Guna Yala an independent and sovereign indigenous territory within Panama. Since then, the Guna have maintained a way of life that has allowed them to preserve their natural resources and mainland forest to an exceptional degree. But today, like many indigenous groups around the world, the Guna face some of their greatest challenges yet: the impacts of climate change, encroaching outside influences, and a younger generation that many elders feel is drifting from its roots.


Another mining company found operating in flagrant violation of Indonesian law

(11/06/2014) A Harita group mining company in West Kalimantan, Indonesia has been operating well outside of its permit boundary, reports local NGO, Forest Monitoring Volunteers of Borneo (RPHK). Their investigation found that PT. Karya Utama Tambang Jaya, is operating illegally on 78 hectares of land. The company holds permits to mine bauxite (aluminum ore) on 8,878 hectares.


Book detailing corruption allegations against Malaysian ruler moves forward

(11/05/2014) A book alleging massive corruption by Sarawak's long-time ruler, Abdul Taib bin Mahmud, is being released despite apparent legal threats against the book's publisher and author.


91% of Kenya’s protected areas shrank in 100 years

(11/04/2014) Over the last century, 91.7 percent of all changes to protected areas in Kenya have involved reductions in their area, known as downsizing, which is an unusual and remarkable statistic from a global perspective. Analyses show, however, that a variety of factors—including some that which occurred half a century ago—could be responsible for the status of forests in Kenya today.


Reducing tax evasion could help save the Amazon

(11/04/2014) Taxing underutilized land in the Amazon could conserve forests, boost productivity, and alleviate poverty, argues study.


Indonesian government's concession policy prioritizes companies over forest communities

(11/03/2014) A report by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) analyzes 100 conflicts around the world in the mining, oil and gas, logging and agricultural sectors and examines how and why they come about. The report focuses on several emerging economies, including Brazil, Colombia, Liberia, Peru, and Indonesia.


Facing severe drought, 'war effort' needed to save the Amazon, says scientist

(11/03/2014) Severe droughts in southern Brazil may be linked to deforestation and degradation of Earth's largest rainforest, argues a new report published by a Brazilian scientist. Reviewing data from roughly 200 studies, Antonio Donato Nobre of Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE) warns that reducing deforestation will not be enough to restore the ecological function of the Amazon rainforest, which acts as a giant water pump that delivers precipitation across much of South America.


De-protection of Protected Areas ramps up in Brazil, 'compromises the capacity' of ecosystems

(10/31/2014) Brazil has reserved about 17.6 percent of its land (1.5 million square kilometers) to receive protection from unauthorized exploitation of resources. However, despite significant expansions in protected areas since the mid-2000s, the formation of Protected Areas has stagnated in the country since 2009, and many have had their protections completely revoked.


Between the Forest and the Sea: The Yarsuisuit Collective - Part II

(10/31/2014) In this multimedia piece by SRI fellow Bear Guerra, we follow Andrés de León and the Yarsuisuit collective, a group of men who grow and harvest food sustainably in the Guna mainland forest. They also run a store on the island of Ustupu that helps support their families, serving as a model for the wider community.


'Too many people': Philippine island being deforested despite extensive protections

(10/31/2014) About an hour and a half plane ride from the Philippine capital Manila is Palawan, a long, narrow island home to about a quarter of all the animal species found in the country. But the province is losing its forests at a rapid clip due to human population increases, logging, quarrying, mining, and even a huge palm plantation.


Dissolving pulp: a growing threat to global forests

(10/30/2014) Dissolving pulp is not just a threat to the forests of Indonesia. It is a growing industry across the globe, and it’s putting several of the world’s endangered forests in jeopardy.


Destroyed habitat, fewer resources, Ebola: the many repercussions of Liberia's deforestation

(10/29/2014) Liberia is one of the last strongholds of intact forest in West Africa. These forests are the home of many unique species of plants and animals, and many Liberians rely on the forests for direct economic benefits. The presence of intact forests may even be important for preventing the future outbreak of disease such as Ebola, which can be transmitted to people from animal vectors displaced by deforestation.


Tigers vs. diamonds: India’s protected areas rampantly downgraded to make room for people, industry

(10/29/2014) In India’s central state of Madhya Pradesh lie 500 square kilometers (200 square miles) of protected land demarcated as the Panna Tiger Reserve. Recently, however, its protection status has been questioned, and global-scale analyses show Panna is far from alone among India’s many threatened Protected Areas.


Bunge commits to zero deforestation palm oil

(10/28/2014) Agribusiness giant Bunge has joined the growing ranks of companies that have established zero deforestation policies for their palm oil supply chains.


How protected are they? Report finds world's Protected Areas may relax, shrink, even completely disappear

(10/28/2014) On March 1, 1872, the United States Congress declared 3,400 square miles of land spanning three states as the country’s - and the world’s - first national park. We call it Yellowstone. Today, there are over 160,000 PAs spanning 12.7 percent of the planet’s land surface.


Between the forest and the sea: life and climate change in Guna Yala - Part I

(10/27/2014) The island-dwelling Guna people of Panama are one of the most sovereign indigenous communities in the world, but now severe weather and sea level rise are causing regular flooding on many of the islands, and will likely force the Guna to have to abandon their island homes for the mainland. This multimedia piece offers an introduction to everyday life and customs in Guna Yala and touches upon the uncertain future the Guna are now facing thanks to the impacts of climate change.


Scientific association calls on Nicaragua to scrap its Gran Canal

(10/27/2014) ATBC—the world's largest association of tropical biologists and conservationists—has advised Nicaragua to halt its ambitious plan to build a massive canal across the country. The ATBC warns that the Chinese-backed canal, also known as the Gran Canal, will have devastating impacts on Nicaragua's water security, its forests and wildlife, and local people.


Conservationists propose Dracula Reserve in Ecuador

(10/24/2014) Deep in the dark, cool forests of Ecuador and Colombia live strange and mysterious organisms. Some inhabit the trees and others stay to the ground, and many are threatened by human encroachment. Because of this threat, Rainforest Trust has launched a Halloween fundraising drive to help pay for the creation of the Dracula Reserve--named for its dramatic inhabitant, the Dracula orchid.


Google's new Gombe Street View lets users 'walk' along chimp trails and into Jane Goodall's house

(10/24/2014) Google Maps is now available for Tanzanian forest paths. Users can walk virtually along the same trails Jane Goodall has used for her decades of chimpanzee monitoring -- and even into her house.


Beef, palm oil, soy, and wood products from 8 countries responsible for 1/3 of forest destruction

(10/23/2014) Four commodities produced in just eight countries are responsible for a third of the world's forest loss, according to a new report. Those familiar with the long-standing effort to stop deforestation won't be surprised by the commodities named: beef, palm oil, soy, and wood products (including timber and paper). Nor will they be very surprised by most of the countries: Brazil, Indonesia, and Malaysia.


Brazil declares new protected area larger than Delaware

(10/23/2014) Earlier this week, the Brazilian government announced the declaration of a new federal reserve deep in the Amazon rainforest. The protections conferred by the move will illegalize deforestation, reduce carbon emissions, and help safeguard the future of the area’s renowned wildlife.


Gold mining expanding rapidly along Guiana Shield, threatening forests, water, wildlife

(10/22/2014) Gold mining is on the rise in the Guiana Shield, a geographic region of South America that holds one of the world’s largest undisturbed tract of rainforest. A new mapping technology using a radar and optical imaging combination has detected a significant increase in mining since 2000, threatening the region's forests and water quality.


Colombia reports drop in deforestation

(10/21/2014) Colombia has for the first time released an annual report on deforestation, revealing that forest loss during 2013 was lower than the recent average. The government says some 120,933 hectares of natural forest were cleared between January and December 2013.


'No forests, no cash': palm oil giants commit to sustainability, but will they follow through?

(10/21/2014) Four of Indonesia’s largest palm oil producers signed a landmark commitment in New York in September to further implement sustainable practices across one of the country’s largest commercial sectors. Then-President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and the Indonesia Chamber of Commerce (KADIN) witnessed the undertaking, which is hoped to expand the country’s palm oil industry while making it more environmentally friendly.


Coal, climate and orangutans – Indonesia’s quandary

(10/21/2014) What do the climate and orangutans have in common? They are both threatened by coal - the first by burning it, and the second by mining it. At the recent United Nations Climate Summit in New York, world leaders and multinational corporations pledged a variety of actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation to avert a looming disaster caused by global warming.


Top scientists raise concerns over commercial logging on Woodlark Island

(10/21/2014) A number of the world's top conservation scientists have raised concerns about plans for commercial logging on Woodlark Island, a hugely biodiverse rainforest island off the coast of Papua New Guinea. The scientists, with the Alliance of Leading Environmental Scientists and Thinkers (ALERT), warn that commercial logging on the island could imperil the island's stunning local species and its indigenous people.


Saving Asia's other endangered cats (photos)

(10/21/2014) It's no secret that when it comes to the wild cats of Asia—and, really, cats in general—tigers get all the press. In fact, tigers—down to an estimated 3,200 individuals—arguably dominate conservation across Asia. But as magnificent, grand, and endangered as the tigers are, there are a number of other felines in the region that are much less studied—and may be just as imperiled.


Indonesian law bars palm oil companies from protecting forests

(10/21/2014) A law passed by the Indonesian government last month makes it even more difficult for palm oil companies to conserve tracts of wildlife-rich and carbon-dense forests within their concessions, potentially undermining these producers' commitments to phase deforestation out of their supply chains, warns a new report published by Greenomics, an Indonesian environmental group.


Indonesia developing mega coal mine five times larger than Singapore

(10/20/2014) Global miner BHP Billiton and Indonesian partner PT Adaro are developing what could become the single largest mine in Indonesia in terms of land area, with BHP owning 75 percent. The IndoMet mine complex in Central and East Kalimantan provinces on Borneo comprises seven coal concessions, which cover 350,000 hectares, or about five times the size of Singapore.


Indonesia’s tough choice: capping coal as Asian demand grows

(10/17/2014) Indonesia cannot build power stations fast enough. And neither can most of its Asian neighbors. Rapid economic and population growth are driving equally rapid demands for electricity as the region builds out power grids to connect up millions of people to fuel prosperity.


Push to undermine Indonesia's new president could stymie environmental progress, say NGOs

(10/17/2014) concerted push by political elites to undermine Indonesia's president before he even takes office could stymie progress on social and environmental issues in the country, say Indonesian civil society groups. On July 9, former Surakarta (Solo) and Jakarta mayor Joko 'Jokowi' Widodo beat ex-general Prabowo Subianto in Indonesia's presidential election by 8.4 million votes. Yet despite the wide margin, Jokowi has been stung by a series of political setbacks that will hinder his ability to govern once he assumes office Monday.


To become less damaging, target non-forest lands for palm oil, says book

(10/16/2014) Palm oil production has been spectacularly profitable but ecologically disastrous across Southeast Asia, consuming millions of hectares of indigenous lands, rainforests, and peatlands in recent decades. That paradox has made the crop highly controversial despite its importance in providing a high-yielding source of vegetable oil. A new book, published freely online by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), weighs in on the debate and concludes — like many before it — that the problem is not the crop itself, but how it is produced.


Indonesia tries to clamp down on coal sector’s worst excesses

(10/16/2014) Out of the jungles of East Borneo in Indonesia comes the fire that fuels Asia’s burgeoning economies: coal. Miners dig deep open pits, clearing forests and farmlands to extract coal from thick black seams, which is then crushed and loaded onto trucks and barges for shipment to China, India, Japan and other destinations in Asia.


Researchers create global map of world's forests circa 1990

(10/14/2014) Researchers have created a global map of the world's forests in the year 1990, enabling accurate comparisons between past and current deforestation rates. The GIS data underpinning the map is available at LandCover.org.


As Amazon deforestation falls, small farmers play bigger role in forest clearing

(10/14/2014) Smallholder properties account for a rising proportion of overall deforestation in Brazilian Amazon, suggesting that Brazil’s progress in cutting forest loss through stricter law enforcement may be nearing the limits of its effectiveness, finds a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Rogue palm oil company appeals deforestation case to Indonesia's supreme court

(10/14/2014) Oil palm company PT. Kallista Alam has filed an appeal with the Supreme Court continuing the closely-watched legal battle set to redefine Indonesia's commitment to environmental justice. Lawyers for the company filed the new appeal on October 6, claiming the initial case is invalid because it failed to include all relevant parties as defendants—including the governor of Aceh, who issued the concession permit in 2011.


Forest restoration commitments: driven by science or politics?

(10/10/2014) During September's UN Climate Summit, three African nations were recognized for their commitments to restore collectively millions of hectares of forest. But several organizations declined invitations to sign the pact because they say it fails to lay out “concrete action” to fight climate change, and some experts in the field worry that the announcements are little more than political posturing.


'A remarkable conservation achievement': Ecuador reserve expands as forest disappears

(10/09/2014) A strip of rainforest running along the northwestern Ecuadorian coast and up through Colombia is one of the most biodiverse places in the world. Yet, less than 10 percent of Ecuador’s portion remains intact, with more forest lost every year to human development. But a little more has been saved for now, with 500 hectares added to an area reserve.


Forest fragmentation's carbon bomb: 736 million tonnes C02 annually

(10/09/2014) Scientists have long known that forest fragments are not the same ecologically as intact forest landscapes. When forests are slashed into fragments, winds dry out the edges leading to dying trees and rising temperatures. Biodiversity often drops, while local extinctions rise and big animals vanish. Now, a new study finds another worrisome impact of forest fragmentation: carbon emissions.


Brazil unlikely to sustain gains in reducing deforestation without new incentives for ranchers, says study

(10/09/2014) Cattle ranchers that drive the vast majority of forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon are unlikely to be held at bay indefinitely unless they are afforded new incentives for keeping trees standing, argues new analysis published by an economic research group. The findings suggest that Brazil's recent progress in reducing deforestation — annual forest loss in the region has dropped by roughly 80 percent since 2004 — could easily be reversed.


Report rates palm oil companies on sustainability commitments

(10/05/2014) A new report published Forest Heroes, an advocacy campaign pushing for an end to deforestation, ranks global palm oil companies on their sustainability commitments. The Green Tigers, authored by Glen Hurowitz, reviews the recent history of environmental policies in the palm oil sector, beginning with the formation of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2004 through the wave of comprehensive zero deforestation commitments in 2013-2014.


Central Kalimantan to set up palm oil monitoring system to in bid cut deforestation 80%

(10/05/2014) The Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan is moving forward on an oil palm plantation monitoring system it hopes will help meet a commitment to reduce deforestation 80 percent by 2020. The online monitoring system will include "information on the performance of plantation concessions such as productivity, the number of smallholder farmers, deforestation and other land cover change, and fire occurrence," according to Earth Innovation Institute which designed and is helping the provincial government implement the system.


Companies hire local communities to evade palm oil restrictions in Indonesia

(10/04/2014) As more palm oil companies are held accountable for deforestation in Indonesia, a growing number are hiring local communities to do their dirty work. According to the Oil Palm Farmers Union (SPKS), companies promise to buy mature fruits at attractive rates from smallholders and local villages who agree to clear and plant in protected forest areas. Through these agreements, companies distance themselves from the process, leaving the locals to bear responsibility for the destruction.


Despite high deforestation, Indonesia making progress on forests, says Norwegian official

(10/02/2014) Despite having a deforestation rate that now outpaces that of the Brazilian Amazon, Indonesia is beginning to undertake critical reforms necessary to curb destruction of its carbon-dense rainforests and peatlands, says a top Norwegian official. Speaking with mongabay.com in Jakarta on Monday, Stig Traavik, Norway's ambassador to Indonesia, drew parallels between recent developments in Indonesia and initiatives launched in Brazil a decade ago, when deforestation was nearly five times higher than it is today.


High Court denies appeal by palm oil company that cleared protected peat forest

(09/30/2014) Furthering Indonesia's renewed commitment to environmental justice, the High Court of Banda Aceh denied an appeal by PT. Kallista Alam, the oil palm company found guilty of destroying over 1,000 hectares of protected peat forest in Gunung Leuser ecosystem. The Court upheld the previous ruling, which fined the company 366 billion rupiah ($30 million) in penalties and restoration fees.


Malaysian palm oil company destroys Borneo forests, despite buyer's zero deforestation commitment

(09/30/2014) Malaysian palm oil company Genting Plantations is continuing to destroy forests despite a high-profile pledge by one of its customers to eliminate deforestation from its supply chain, alleges a report published by Greenomics, an Indonesian environmental group.


Climate change to boost farmland, diminish harvests, says new study

(09/29/2014) Climate change is likely to alter how we humans grow adequate amounts of food for a swelling global population. Assessing just how much and where those changes will occur has been difficult. But a new study takes aim at those very questions and could provide a guide for the debate over feeding the planet while also preserving biodiversity and the forests that filter out the carbon we produce.


Diverse, deceptive, declining: orchids threatened by deforestation in South America

(09/26/2014) Pushing past a thick fern leaf, Crain stopped short, overcome by joy. As he broke into dance, his assistant peered curiously at the tiny lentil-shaped fruit dangling from a stem, and resolutely decided Crain was mad. After more than two years studying a rare Puerto Rican endemic orchid species, Crain had finally found his first specimen bearing fruit.


Coal mine has heavy impact in Indonesian Borneo

(09/26/2014) Baharuddin should be happy. The rambutan and durian trees flanking his home are heavy with fruit. Two hectares of chilies stretch before his house. The price of chili — a staple commodity in Indonesia — has been stable for six months. From his 2,000 plants he hopes to earn 40 million rupiah ($3,400), much of which he wants to invest in expanding his crop. That is, if his farm can survive the threats that have destroyed so many of his neighbor's.


Reintroduction program ups Mexico's scarlet macaw population by 34 percent in one year

(09/25/2014) While listed as Least Concern by the IUCN, the scarlet macaw has disappeared from almost all of its native range in Mexico, is very rare in most Central America countries, and is locally extinct in El Salvador. A new paper published this week finds a reintroduction program was hugely successful in its first year of operation, with a 92 percent survival rate for released birds.


Four countries pledge to restore 30 million hectares of degraded lands at UN Summit

(09/25/2014) In 2011, Germany and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature launched the Bonn Challenge, which pledged to restore 150 million hectares of degraded and deforested lands by 2020. Several countries have already made commitments—including the U.S.—but this week at the UN Climate Summit four more jumped on board.


Termites suffer in logged forests and palm oil plantations

(09/25/2014) Ants appear more resilient to forest degradation than termites. Scientists have long studied how birds, mammals, and amphibians respond to forest degradation, but what about the most abundant animals in the forest? Insects. A new study in Biodiversity and Conservation looks at how ants and termites reacted to forest changes in Malaysian Borneo.


Turning point for Peru's forests? Norway and Germany put muscle and money behind ambitious agreement

(09/24/2014) From the Andes to the Amazon, Peru houses some of the world's most spectacular forests. Proud and culturally-diverse indigenous tribes inhabit the interiors of the Peruvian Amazon, including some that have chosen little contact with the outside world. And even as scientists have identified tens-of-thousands of species that make their homes from the leaf litter to the canopy.


Cargill commits to zero deforestation across entire global supply chain: all commodities

(09/24/2014) Cargill, one of the world's largest agricultural companies, has extended its zero deforestation commitment for palm oil to all commodities it produces. The commitment, announced Tuesday at the United Nations Climate Summit in New York, is the most far-reaching zero deforestation policy ever established, covering Cargill's sprawling global empire of businesses, including palm oil, sugar, soy, cattle, and cocoa.


Norway to pay Liberia to stop deforestation

(09/23/2014) In one of the many major announcements that have come out of the UN Climate Summit in New York this week, Norway says it will pay Liberia to stop cutting down its forests. Norway’s payment will come on the form of development aid for the war-torn, impoverished, and now Ebola-ridden West African nation.


Fragmented forests hurt some bat species, may benefit others

(09/23/2014) Development of roads and other structures disturb large, continuous patches of habitat for wildlife. This habitat fragmentation is one of the biggest contributors to species extinction, as the local ecology and species interactions are altered. A new study finds that leaf-nosed bat abundances in Mexico are closely linked to how sensitive each species is to habitat fragmentation.


Dissolving pulp: the threat to Indonesia’s forests you’ve probably never heard of

(09/23/2014) If the term “dissolving pulp” evokes nothing for you, you’re not alone. Not many people have heard of it, and the very term “dissolving pulp” is so generic it’s hard to imagine it could be a threat to anything.


Feeding the planet while saving forests

(09/22/2014) Cattle ranching, palm oil production, soy cultivation, and other forms of commercial agriculture drive more than 70 percent of tropical deforestation worldwide, but a global transition could enable the world to produce more food, fuel and fiber without destroying more forests, argues a new report published by the Climate and Land Use Alliance (CLUA), a group of philanthropic organizations working to slow climate change.


Extinction island? Plans to log half an island could endanger over 40 species

(09/22/2014) Woodlark Island is a rare place on the planet today. This small island off the coast Papua New Guinea is still covered in rich tropical forest, an ecosystem shared for thousands of years between tribal peoples and a plethora of species, including at least 42 found no-where else. Yet, like many such wildernesses, Woodlark Island is now facing major changes: not the least of them is a plan to log half of the island.


Legislation protecting Indonesia's indigenous communities is not good enough, says advocacy group

(09/18/2014) Approaching final legalization, an advocacy group for Indonesia’s indigenous communities has asked to postpone passing a bill granting protections to indigenous people, stating some demands still need to be addressed.


The cheap option on climate change: recognize indigenous rights to forests

(09/18/2014) Since 2008, governments have invested $1.64 billion in funds to kick-start REDD+, or Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, the global effort to conserve the world's forests in order to better mitigate climate change. However, a new report by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) finds that same amount of money could have secured the legal rights of indigenous and local people to 450 million hectares of forest, an area 40 percent larger than India.


'The green Amazon is red with indigenous blood': authorities pull bodies from river that may have belonged to slain leaders

(09/17/2014) Peruvian authorities have pulled more human remains from a remote river in the Amazon, which may belong to one of the four murdered Ashaninka natives killed on September 1st. It is believed the four Ashaninka men, including renowned leader Edwin Chota Valera, were assassinated for speaking up against illegal logging on their traditional lands.


Activists urge outgoing Indonesian president to protect key forest area before he steps down

(09/17/2014) Activists have launched an urgent appeal calling upon outgoing Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to step up protection of the only ecosystem that houses Sumatran orangutans, rhinos, elephants and tigers.


From 'production' forests to protected forests, groups work to save Sumatran orangutan habitat. But will it be enough?

(09/16/2014) The orangutan is native exclusively to the islands of Borneo and Sumatra — two regions that have seen the brunt of Indonesia's recent forest destruction due primarily to logging and plantation development. Although there are anywhere from 45,000 to 69,000 Bornean orangutans remaining in the wild, the Sumatran species numbers only about 7,300 according to a 2004 survey, and is dwindling further every year.


Brazil's planned Tapajós dams would increase Amazon deforestation by 1M ha

(09/14/2014) A plan to build a dozen dams in the Tapajós river basin would drive the loss of an additional 950,000 hectares of rainforest by 2032 by spurring land speculation and mass migration to the region, suggests a new study published by Imazon, a Brazilian NGO.


As Bolivia plans dramatic agro-expansion, forests may pay the price (PART II)

(09/12/2014) In an August 14 announcement, Bolivian Vice President, Alvaro Garcia Linera, laid out an ambitious plan to increase the country’s cropland by 250 percent, and triple its agricultural output. The proposal is touted as way to increase both food and economic security for the inland South American country, but what will it mean for its forests?


Palm oil company continues to operate illegal plantation despite court ruling

(09/12/2014) A palm oil company in Central Kalimantan continues to operate business as usual, despite a Supreme Court ruling confirming it has no legal permit to do so. Since 2009, PT Hati Prima Agro (HPA), a subsidiary of palm oil giant Bumitama Gunajaya Agro Group (BGA), has cleared over 7,000 ha of land in Central Kalimantan, even though their permits were revoked by the Ministry of Forestry in 2008.


Brazil confirms last year's rise in Amazon deforestation

(09/12/2014) Brazil's National Space Agency INPE has officially confirmed last year's rise in Amazon deforestation.


Illegal tropical deforestation driven globally by “agro-conversion”

(09/11/2014) Nearly 50 percent of tropical deforestation to make room for commercial agriculture between 2000 and 2012 was done so illegally. That’s a key finding of a report published by the U.S.-based nonprofit organization Forest Trends looking at the global tide of tropical forest “agro-conversion.”


FSC meeting weighs old-growth forest protection, smallholder participation

(09/11/2014) The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a body that sets social and environmental certification criteria for forestry products, is weighing measures that could step up protection for old-growth forests and make it easier for indigenous people and traditional forest communities to qualify for certification. The measures are set for a vote this week at the body's General Assembly, which is held every three years to establish and revise criteria that underpin the standard.


Bolivian vice president proposes unprecedented agricultural expansion (PART 1)

(09/10/2014) On August 14, the Bolivian Vice President, Alvaro Garcia Linera, made a startling announcement: by 2025, Bolivia was going to make two striking developments - first, it would expand all cultivated land to 2.5 times its present area, and second, it would triple food production from 15 to 45 million tons.


Elephants pay the price for palm oil in Malaysian Borneo, impact may reach far beyond reported kills

(09/10/2014) More than a dozen elephant kills were reported in Sabah in 2013 alone, but it is unknown exactly how many have lost their lives in recent years as palm plantations encroach further and further into the rainforest. What is clear is that if the loss of their forest habitat continues to drive conflicts with humans at the rate it is now, Borneo elephants’ long-term survival may be in jeopardy.


Malaysian palm oil chief misleads on deforestation

(09/10/2014) One of Malaysia's top palm oil officials has once again misled the public on the state of forests in Malaysia.


Companies at risk of sourcing illegal palm oil despite zero deforestation commitments, finds investigation

(09/05/2014) Major palm oil suppliers may be continuing to buy tainted palm oil despite high-profile commitments to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains, reports a new investigation published by Eyes on the Forest.


Canada, Russia, Brazil lead world in old-growth forest loss

(09/05/2014) Every day, the world loses about 50,000 hectares of forest to agricultural clearing, road development, and other human activities, constricting true wilderness into smaller and smaller areas – along with the species that inhabit them. New analysis and maps released this week show these last vestiges are disappearing at a quick pace, with more than 104 million hectares degraded from 2000 to 2013.


REDD+ versus indigenous people? Why a tribe in Panama rejected pay for their carbon-rich forests

(09/04/2014) There isn’t a word or phrase in the Kuna language for "carbon trading,” and much less for something as complex as REDD+. Standing for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, REDD+ is the worldwide UN-backed climate change mitigation scheme that relies on carbon trading within forest landscapes to fund forest conservation programs. And yet, since 2008, the Kuna people have been hearing lots about it and referring to it often in their private conversations.


The last of her kind: centennial of the death of the world's last passenger pigeon

(09/01/2014) They once numbered in the billions, flying 60 miles per hour in flocks that darkened the sky. But on September 1, 1914, one hundred years ago today, the last member of what may have been the most numerous bird species on the planet died in a cage in the Cincinnati zoo.


'A global tragedy' in the making? Thailand plans highway expansion through World Heritage Site

(08/29/2014) Dong Phayayen Khao Yai Forest Complex (DPKY-FC) is the largest tract of surviving forest in central Thailand, renowned for its biodiversity. Now, the Thai government is planning major expansions to a road that bisects the complex – which scientists say will bar animal movement throughout their natural ranges, result in higher rates of road kill, and give hunters and loggers increased access to the forest.


More trouble with tar sands: oil extraction leading to big forest loss in Alberta

(08/29/2014) Tar sands operations have been the subject of much controversy over the past few years as expected economic gains for Canada the may come at the cost of environmental damage from the proposed Keystone XL pipeline and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Now another negative impact has come to light - deforestation of the boreal forest overlying the oil deposits.


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Country / AreaLand areaForest
ForestOther wooded landTotal areaAreaAnnual change rateArea of primary forestAnnual change rateArea of forest plantations
2005199020001990-20002000-2005PrimaryModified naturalSemi-naturalProduction plantationProtection plantation1990200020051990-20002000-2005199020002005
Country / Area1000 ha% of land area1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha/yr%1000 ha/yr%1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha1000 haha/yrha/yr1000 ha1000 ha1000 ha
Angola59,10447.4-124,67060,97659,728-125-0.2-125-0.2058,9730131000000140134131
Botswana11,94321.134,79158,17313,71812,535-118-0.9-118-1-------------
British Indian
Ocean Territory
332.508330000-------------
Comoros52.9-186128n.s.-4-1-7.40401-00000221
Kenya3,5226.234,92058,0373,7083,582-13-0.3-12-0.37042,616-202-742716704-2,520-2,400238212202
Lesotho80.3313,03557n.s.3.4n.s.2.71--7-11100467
Madagascar12,83822.117,05458,70413,69213,023-67-0.5-37-0.310,3472,198-2345910,50310,38110,347-12,200-6,800293293293
Malawi3,40236.2-11,8483,8963,567-33-0.9-33-0.91,1322,067-204-1,7271,3301,132-39,700-39,600132180204
Mauritius3718.2152043938n.s.-0.3n.s.-0.5022n.s.11400000161515
Mayotte514.7-3766n.s.-0.4n.s.-0.4-5-n.s.------n.s.n.s.n.s.
Mozambique19,26224.640,91980,15920,01219,512-50-0.3-50-0.3-19,224-38------383838
Namibia7,6619.38,47382,4298,7628,033-73-0.9-74-0.9-7,661-----------
RÈunion8433.6552518787n.s.-0.1-1-0.75561822555555-30-20555
Seychelles4088.9-4540400000233-5-22200555
South Africa9,2037.621,409121,9099,2039,2030000-7,777-1,426------1,2041,3521,426
Swaziland54131.52891,73647251850.950.9-39531114------135121114
Uganda3,62718.41,15024,1044,9244,059-86-1.9-86-2.2-3,591-36------333536
UR Tanzania35,25739.94,75694,50941,44137,318-412-1-412-1.1-35,107-150------150150150
Zambia42,45257.13,16175,26149,12444,676-445-0.9-445-1-42,377-75------607575
Zimbabwe17,54045.3-39,07522,23419,105-313-1.5-313-1.7-17,385-154------154154154
Total Eastern and
Southern Africa
226,53427.8167,023834,380252,354235,047-1,731-0.7-1,702-0.8
Algeria2,27711,595238,1741,7902,144351.8271.2-1,20631612742-----620652754
Burkina Faso6,794297,42727,4007,1546,914-24-0.3-24-0.305,91880071500000336376
Chad11,9219.59,152128,40013,11012,317-79-0.6-79-0.719011,716--15209196190-1,300-1,200111415
Djibouti60.22202,320660000-------------
Egypt670.120100,14544592322.6---166-----445967
Eritrea1,55415.47,25711,7601,6211,576-4-0.3-4-0.3-1,526-1414-----102228
Ethiopia13,00011.944,650110,43015,11413,705-141-1-141-1.1-12,509-491------491491491
Libya2170.1330175,9542172170000----217-----217217217
Mali12,57210.316,532124,01914,07213,072-100-0.7-100-0.8------13,012----60-
Mauritania2670.33,110102,552415317-10-2.7-10-3.4-----------10-
Morocco4,3649.840644,6554,2894,32840.170.2-3,75447563------478523563
Niger1,26613,740126,7001,9451,328-62-3.7-12-1220936--11022022022000-72110
Somalia7,13111.4-63,7668,2827,515-77-1-77-1-7,128-3------333
Sudan67,54628.4-250,58176,38170,491-589-0.8-589-0.813,50947,2821,3514,72867515,27614,09813,509-117,807-117,8076,1115,6395,404
Tunisia1,0566.817016,361643959324.1191.9-320238150348-----226423498
Western Sahara1,0113.8-26,6001,0111,0110000-------------
Total Northern Africa131,0488.694,6091,549,817146,093135,958-1,013-0.7-982-0.7
Benin2,35121.33,95911,2623,3222,675-65-2.1-65-2.5-2,237-114------98109114
Burundi1525.97222,783289198-9-3.7-9-5.20670860-00-0-8686
Cameroon21,24545.614,75847,54424,54522,345-220-0.9-220-1-------------
Cape Verde8420.7-403588223.6n.s.0.4---6717-----588284
Central African Republic22,75536.510,12262,29823,20322,903-30-0.1-30-0.1-22,750-5------245
Congo22,47165.810,54734,20022,72622,556-17-0.1-17-0.17,46414,957-51-7,5487,4927,464-5,647-5,647515151
CÙte d'Ivoire10,40532.72,62632,24610,22210,328110.1150.16259,4430337062562562500154261337
DR Congo133,61058.983,277234,486140,531135,207-532-0.4-319-0.2-------------
Equatorial Guinea1,63258.2312,8051,8601,708-15-0.8-15-0.9-------------
Gabon21,77584.5-26,76721,92721,826-10n.s.-10n.s.---36------363636
Gambia47141.71251,13044246120.420.4-471-n.s.------n.s.n.s.n.s.
Ghana5,51724.2023,8547,4486,094-135-2-115-23535,004-160-353353353005060160
Guinea6,72427.45,85024,5867,4086,904-50-0.7-36-0.5636,5686030363636300172233
Guinea-Bissau2,07273.72363,6122,2162,120-10-0.4-10-0.59401,132-0n.s.94094094000n.s.n.s.1
Liberia3,15432.7011,1374,0583,455-60-1.6-60-1.81293,017-8-12912912900888
Nigeria11,08912.25,49592,37717,23413,137-410-2.7-410-3.332610,414034901,556736326-82,000-82,000251316349
Rwanda48019.5612,63431834430.8276.9062-3675200000248282419
Saint Helena26.5031220000-------------
Sao Tome and Principe2728.42996272700001216---12121200---
Senegal8,673455,00119,6729,3488,898-45-0.5-45-0.51,5986,710-332331,7591,6531,598-10,600-11,000205306365
Sierra Leone2,75438.53847,1743,0442,851-19-0.7-19-0.7-2,751-3------233
Togo3867.11,2465,679685486-20-3.4-20-4.50348-30800000243438
Total Western and
Central Africa
277,82944.1144,468646,776300,914284,608-1,631-0.6-1,356-0.5
Total Africa635,41221.4406,1003,030,974699,361655,613-4,375-0.7-4,040-0.6
China197,29021.287,615959,805157,141177,0011,9861.24,0582.211,632114,33239,95728,5302,83911,63211,63211,6320018,46623,92431,369
DPR Korea6,18751.4-12,0548,2016,821-138-1.8-127-1.9852-5,335--1,129939852-19,000-17,400---
Japan24,86868.2-37,78024,95024,876-7n.s.-2n.s.4,5919,955--10,3213,7644,0544,59129,000107,40010,28710,33110,321
Mongolia10,2526.52,388156,65011,49210,665-83-0.7-83-0.84,7335,407-112-5,5404,9234,733-61,700-38,0003075112
Republic of Korea6,26563.5-9,9266,3716,300-7-0.1-7-0.1-4,901-1,364------7481,1881,364
Total East Asia244,86221.390,0031,176,215208,155225,6631,7510.83,8401.6
Bangladesh8716.75814,400882884n.s.n.s.-2-0.3-592-19584-----239276279
Bhutan3,195686114,7003,0353,141110.3110.34132,5292512041341341300112
Brunei Darussalam27852.8160577313288-2-0.8-2-0.7278----313288278-2,500-2,000---
Cambodia10,44759.227018,10412,94611,541-140-1.1-219-212210,266059-766456122-31,000-66,800677259
India67,70122.84,110328,72663,93967,5543620.629n.s.-32,94331,5321,0532,173-----1,9542,8053,226
Indonesia88,49548.8-190,457116,56797,852-1,872-1.7-1,871-248,702-36,3943,399-70,41955,94148,702-1,447,800-1,447,8002,2093,0023,399
Lao PDR16,14269.94,64323,68017,31416,532-78-0.5-78-0.51,49014,428-22311,4901,4901,49000499224
Malaysia20,89063.6-32,97522,37621,591-78-0.4-140-0.73,820-15,4971,573-3,8203,8203,820001,9561,6591,573
Maldives13030110000-------------
Myanmar32,2224910,83467,65839,21934,554-466-1.3-466-1.4031,373069615300000394696849
Nepal3,63625.41,89714,7184,8173,900-92-2.1-53-1.43493842,8504310391384349-700-7,000495253
Pakistan1,9022.51,38979,6102,5272,116-41-1.8-43-2.1-1,584-318------234296318
Philippines7,162243,61130,00010,5747,949-262-2.8-157-2.18295,713-304316829829829001,780852620
Singapore23.40682200002000022200000
Sri Lanka1,93329.906,5612,3502,082-27-1.2-30-1.51671,571-17124257197167-6,000-6,000242221195
Thailand14,52028.4-51,31215,96514,814-115-0.7-59-0.46,4514,970-1,9971,1026,4516,4516,451002,6403,0773,099
Timor-Leste79853.7-1,487966854-11-1.2-11-1.3-755--43-----294343
Viet Nam12,93139.72,25933,1699,36311,7252362.324128510,151-1,79290338418785-19,700-20,4009672,0502,695
Total South and
South-east Asia
283,12733.429,842898,232323,156297,380-2,578-0.9-2,851-1
Afghanistan8671.3-65,2091,3091,015-29-2.5-30-3.1-867-----------
Armenia32111.4442,98033634410.2-5-1.416295001017171640-280141110
Azerbaijan93611.3548,6609369360000400516--2040040040000202020
Bahrainn.s.0.6071n.s.n.s.n.s.5.6n.s.3.8----n.s.-----n.s.n.s.n.s.
Cyprus17418.921492516117310.7n.s.0.222111360522222200335
Georgia2,76039.7506,9702,7602,760n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.5002,200006050050050000546060
Iran11,0756.85,340164,82011,07511,075000020010,031228616-20020020000616616616
Iraq8221.992743,83280481810.210.10809001300000151513
Israel1718.3852,10615416410.610.8-70--101-----8494101
Jordan830.9528,92183830000037604000000404040
Kazakhstan3,3371.215,622272,4903,4223,365-6-0.2-6-0.202,42800909000001,0341,056909
Kuwait60.301,78235n.s.3.5n.s.2.7----6-----356
Kyrgyzstan8694.531319,99083685820.320.3241562-2442237240241250260465966
Lebanon13613.31061,04012113110.810.80129080--0----8
Oman2n.s.1,30321,246220000----2-----222
Palestine91.5-621990000-------------
Qatarn.s.n.s.n.s.1,100n.s.n.s.0000-------------
Saudi Arabia2,7281.334,155214,9692,7282,7280000-2,728-----------
Syria4612.53518,51837243261.561.3-198--264-----175234264
Tajikistan4102.914214,255408410n.s.n.s.002971235224429729729700766666
Turkey10,17513.210,68977,4829,68010,052370.4250.29755,9257381,91662173989797515,80015,6001,8392,3042,537
Turkmenistan4,1278.8048,8104,1274,12700001044,023-0-10410410400000
United Arab Emirates3123.748,36024531062.4n.s.0.1000031200000245310312
Uzbekistan3,295890444,7403,0453,212170.5170.5572,64353455657575700305161
Yemen54911,40652,7975495490000-161388----------
Total Western and
Central Asia
43,626471,4461,102,69543,16643,558390.114n.s.
Total Asia571,61518.5191,2913,177,142574,477566,601-788-0.11,0030.2
Albania794292612,875789769-2-0.350.6856210386858585001039688
Andorra1635.6-4516160000-------------
Austria3,86246.71188,3863,7763,83860.250.1-----117119-200-9881,003-
Belarus7,8943891420,7607,3767,848470.690.14005,7121,7802-40040040000222
Belgium66722273,053677667-1-0.10000392275000000303284275
Bosnia and Herzegovina2,18543.15495,1202,2102,185-2-0.10021,184857142--22-0-142142
Bulgaria3,62532.82711,0993,3273,37550.1501.4-----267396-12,900-4048-
Channel Islands14.1019110000-------------
Croatia2,13538.23465,6542,1162,12910.110.1102,063061010101000566061
Czech Republic2,64834.307,8872,6302,6371n.s.20.10142,6340000000000
Denmark50011.81364,30944548640.930.6061792813400000291305315
Estonia2,28453.9824,5232,1632,24380.480.41421,39075110-137142-1,000-11
Faeroe Islandsn.s.0.1-140n.s.n.s.0000-------------
Finland22,50073.980233,81422,19422,475280.15n.s.1,419021,081001,4911,4181,419-7,300200000
France15,55428.31,70855,15014,53815,351810.5410.330-13,5561,968-303030001,8421,9361,968
Germany11,07631.7-35,70310,74111,076340.3000011,0760000000000
Gibraltar0001000-0--------------
Greece3,75229.12,78013,1963,2993,601300.9300.803,6180013400000118129134
Holy See000n.s.000-0--------------
Hungary1,97621.509,3031,8011,907110.6140.704151,0164549100000431528545
Iceland460.510410,300253814.323.9017017120000082129
Ireland6699.7417,027441609173.3121.900905790100-1000350519579
Isle of Man36.1057330000-------------
Italy9,97933.91,04730,1348,3839,4471061.21061.1---146-160160-0-289144146
Latvia2,94147.41156,4602,7752,885110.4110.4142,28264410-1514--280-n.s.1
Liechtenstein743.101667n.s.0.60025-n.s.-22200n.s.n.s.n.s.
Lithuania2,09933.5776,5301,9452,02080.4160.8261,548384100412021261001,000124137141
Luxembourg8733.512598687n.s.0.100--5828------282828
Macedonia90635.8822,57190690600000876-30-00000303030
Maltan.s.1.1032n.s.n.s.00000000n.s.00000n.s.n.s.n.s.
Monaco000n.s.000-0--------------
Netherlands36510.804,15334536020.410.3003614000000444
Norway9,38730.72,61332,3769,1309,301170.2170.2250-8,875262-25025025000222255262
Poland9,19230-31,2698,8819,059180.2270.353-9,10732-3051532,100400323232
Portugal3,78341.3849,1983,0993,583481.5401.155-2,4941,067167555555005501,0341,234
Republic of Moldova32910313,38431932610.210.2032801000000111
Romania6,37027.725823,8396,3716,3660n.s.1n.s.2336515,339925723323323300149149149
Russian Federation808,79047.974,1851,707,540808,950809,26832n.s.-96n.s.255,470536,358-11,8885,075241,726258,131255,4701,640,510-532,20012,65115,36016,962
San Marinon.s.1.606n.s.n.s.0000-------------
Serbia and Montenegro2,69426.480810,2172,5592,64990.390.341152,53639044400393939
Slovakia1,92940.1-4,9011,9221,921n.s.n.s.20.12494694017224242400232019
Slovenia1,26462.8442,0271,1881,23950.450.41191,107380063951193,2004,800000
Spain17,91535.910,29950,59913,47916,43629622961.781211,5824,0501,471062174881212,70012,8001,1261,3561,471
Sweden27,52866.93,25744,99627,36727,47411n.s.11n.s.4,726-22,13566704,3484,6004,72625,20025,200523619667
Switzerland1,22130.9674,1291,1551,19940.440.414151,1884036143001,600344
Ukraine9,57516.54160,3709,2749,510240.3130.1594,7294,3998130759595900325367388
United Kingdom2,84511.82024,2912,6112,793180.7100.406462751,90222000001,8771,9341,924
Total Europe1,001,39444.3100,9252,297,719989,320998,0918770.16610.1
Anguilla671.4-8660000-------------
Antigua and Barbuda921.41644990000-------------
Aruban.s.2.2019n.s.n.s.0000-------------
Bahamas51551.5361,3885155150000-515-00-----000
Barbados24-43220000-2-----------
Bermuda12005110000-------------
British Virgin Islands424.421544n.s.-0.1n.s.-0.1-------------
Cayman Islands1248.442612120000-------------
Cuba2,71324.726011,0862,0582,435381.7562.2-2,319-230164-----347342394
Dominica4661.3n.s.755047n.s.-0.5n.s.-0.627190n.s.-282827-86-84-n.s.n.s.
Dominican Republic1,37628.46784,8731,3761,3760000-------------
Grenada412.253444n.s.n.s.0013-n.s.-111-22-23n.s.n.s.n.s.
Guadeloupe8047.221718481n.s.-0.3n.s.-0.3195821019191900311
Haiti1053.8-2,775116109-1-0.6-1-0.7-81-24------122024
Jamaica33931.31881,099345341n.s.-0.1n.s.-0.1-325-86-----151414
Martinique4643.9-11046460000-45-1------111
Montserrat435-10440000-4-----------
Netherlands Antilles11.53380110000-------------
Puerto Rico40846-895404407n.s.0.1n.s.n.s.-------------
Saint Kitts and Nevis514.7636550000-------------
Saint Lucia1727.956217170000-------------
Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines
1127.4239910n.s.0.8n.s.0.8-10-n.s.------n.s.n.s.n.s.
Trinidad and Tobago22644.174513235228-1-0.3n.s.-0.214197015014141400151515
Turks and
Caicos Islands
3480-4334340000-------------
United States
Virgin Islands
1027.9-341210n.s.-1.3n.s.-1.8-------------
Total Caribbean5,97426.11,31023,4825,3505,706360.6540.9
Belize1,65372.51152,2961,6531,65300006121,041---61261261200---
Costa Rica2,39146.8105,1102,5642,376-19-0.830.11801,31988813255180180-7,5000-34
El Salvador29814.42012,104375324-5-1.5-5-1.76286-6-66600666
Guatemala3,93836.31,67210,8894,7484,208-54-1.2-54-1.31,9571,859-122-2,3592,0911,957-26,789-26,8343288122
Honduras4,64841.571011,2097,3855,430-196-3-156-3.11,5122,261845-301,5121,5121,51200312630
Nicaragua5,18942.71,02213,0006,5385,539-100-1.6-70-1.31,8493,289-51-1,8491,8491,8490044651
Panama4,29457.71,2887,5524,3764,307-7-0.2-3-0.13,0231,21006013,7063,2393,023-46,700-43,200104261
Total Central America22,41143.95,01852,16027,63923,837-380-1.6-285-1.3
Canada310,13433.691,951997,061310,134310,1340000165,424144,710---165,424165,424165,42400---
Greenlandn.s.n.s.841,045n.s.n.s.0000-------------
Mexico64,23833.719,908195,82069,01665,540-348-0.5-260-0.432,85030,330-7298638,77534,82532,850-395,000-395,000-1,0581,058
Saint Pierre and
Miquelon
313-24330000-3-----------
United States of America303,08933.1-962,909298,648302,2943650.11590.1104,182175,5236,32317,061-105,268105,258104,182-1,000-215,20010,30516,27417,061
Total North America677,46432.7111,8662,196,859677,801677,97117n.s.-101n.s.
Total North and
Central America
705,84932.9118,1942,272,501710,790707,514-328n.s.-333n.s.
American Samoa1889.4-201818n.s.-0.2n.s.-0.2-------------
Australia163,67821.3421,590774,122167,904164,645-326-0.2-193-0.15,233156,679-1,766--5,2335,233-01,0231,4851,766
Cook Islands1666.5-231516n.s.0.400-14--1-----011
Fiji1,00054.7-1,8279791,00020.2008945-101-895894894-100080101101
French Polynesia10528.7-4001051050000-95-10------101010
Guam2647.10552626n.s.n.s.00-------------
Kiribati23-73220000-------------
Marshall Islands---18-------------------
Micronesia6390.6-7063630000-------------
Nauru0002000-0--------------
New Caledonia71739.27871,8587177170000431277-10-43143143100101010
New Zealand8,309312,55727,0537,7208,226510.6170.23,5062,951-1,832203,5063,5063,506001,2611,7691,852
Niue1454.2-261715n.s.-1.3n.s.-1.4-14-n.s.------n.s.n.s.n.s.
Northern Mariana Islands3372.4-463534n.s.-0.3n.s.-0.3-------------
Palau4087.6-463840n.s.0.4n.s.0.4-------------
Papua New Guinea29,437654,47446,28431,52330,132-139-0.5-139-0.525,2114,134-92-29,21026,46225,211-274,800-250,200638292
Pitcairn483.304440000-------------
Samoa17160.42228413017142.800n.s.110292111-n.s.n.s.-0-3232
Solomon Islands2,17277.6-2,8902,7682,371-40-1.5-40-1.7-------------
Tokelau0001000-0--------------
Tonga45175440000-4-n.s.------n.s.n.s.n.s.
Tuvalu133.303110000-------------
Vanuatu44036.14761,2194404400000-------------
Wallis and Futuna Islands535.311465n.s.-0.8n.s.-2n.s.40100n.s.n.s.-2-6n.s.01
Total Oceania206,25424.3429,908856,414212,514208,034-448-0.2-356-0.2
Argentina33,02112.160,961278,04035,26233,770-149-0.4-150-0.4-31,792-1,229------7691,0781,229
Bolivia58,74054.22,473109,85862,79560,091-270-0.4-270-0.529,36029,360-20-31,38830,03629,360-135,200-135,200202020
Brazil477,69857.2-851,488520,027493,213-2,681-0.5-3,103-0.6415,89056,424-5,384-460,513433,220415,890-2,729,300-3,466,0005,0705,2795,384
Chile16,12121.513,24175,66315,26315,834570.4570.44,1429,292262,66104,1524,1454,142-700-6001,7412,3542,661
Colombia60,72858.518,202113,89161,43960,963-48-0.1-47-0.153,0627,337-3121653,85453,34353,062-51,050-56,160136254328
Ecuador10,85339.21,44828,35613,81711,841-198-1.5-198-1.74,7945,895-164-4,7944,7944,79420-40-162164
Falkland Islands0001,217000-0--------------
French Guiana8,06391.809,0008,0918,063-3n.s.007,7013610107,9097,7617,701-14,800-12,000111
Guyana15,10476.73,58021,49715,10415,104n.s.n.s.009,3145,789----9,3149,314-0---
Paraguay18,47546.5-40,67521,15719,368-179-0.9-179-0.91,85016,582-43-1,8501,8501,85000233643
Peru68,74253.722,132128,52270,15669,213-94-0.1-94-0.161,0656,9230754-62,91062,18861,065-72,200-224,600263715754
South Georgia and
the South Sandwich Islands
000409000-0--------------
Suriname14,77694.7-16,32714,77614,776000014,21455057014,21414,21414,21400777
Uruguay1,5068.6417,6221,1231,409292.3191.3296444-751152392962965,7000419669766
Venezuela47,71354.17,36991,20552,02649,151-288-0.6-288-0.6-------------
Total South America831,54047.7129,4091,783,770891,036852,796-3,824-0.4-4,251-0.5
Total World3,952,06330.31,375,82813,418,5184,077,4983,988,649-8,885-0.2-7,317-0.2



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Copyright Rhett Butler 1994-2005

"Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site.
Same for "rainforests" and "rain forests". "Jungle" is generally not used.