TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Bhutan Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 69.1% or about 3,249,000 ha of Bhutan is forested, according to FAO. Of this 12.7% ( 413,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Bhutan had 3,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Bhutan lost an average of 10,700 ha or 0.35% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Bhutan gained 7.1% of its forest cover, or around 214,000 ha.

Bhutan's forests contain 336 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Bhutan has some 748 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.3% are threatened. Bhutan is home to at least 5468 species of vascular plants, of which 1.4% are endemic. 29.6% of Bhutan is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)333
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)375359349
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1009693
Total forest carbon (Mt C)475455442
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)151152153
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Bhutan Environmental profile | Bhutan pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Bhutan

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Bhutan: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)4700
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)3249
Percent Forest Cover69
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)413
Primary Forest, % total forest13
Other wooded land (1000 ha)613
Percent other wooded land13




Bhutan: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)41313
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)283387
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3n.s.


Bhutan: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3035314131953249
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
111111
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.340.340.34


Bhutan: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3034313931933246
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
111111
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.30.350.34


Bhutan: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
413413413413
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Bhutan: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1223
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
n.s.0n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
7.1808.45


Bhutan: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
16462700011


Bhutan: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
100n.s.0


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
10000


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Bhutan: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
65020040624440
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Bhutan: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
296313324336
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
103
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
222
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Bhutan: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
7100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
n.s.n.s.-n.s.n.s.n.s.


Bhutan: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
170195216100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
1439593100


Bhutan: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
5n.s.n.s.5n.s.


Bhutan: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
135
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Bhutan: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1974)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2008) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1995) Sub-national forest law: No

Bhutan: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
7949119513125513


Bhutan: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Bhutan: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Bhutan: Environment
    Environment - current issuessoil erosion; limited access to potable water
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardsviolent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season


    Bhutan: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 3.09%
    permanent crops: 0.43%
    other: 96.48% (2001)
    Natural resourcestimber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate


    Bhutan: Economy
    Economy - overview:The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale, environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
    GDP - per capita$1,400 (2003 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.3% (2003 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 45%, industry: 10%, services: 45% (2002 est.)
    Industries cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
    Economic aid - recipientsubstantial aid from India and other nations
    Debt - external$245 million (2000)
    Population below poverty line (%)NA
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 93%, industry and commerce 2%, services 5%


    Bhutan: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)2,232,291
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.11%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)47.5
    Percent rural (2003)91.5%
    Median age (years)total: 20.27 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.81 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%


    [an error occurred while processing this directive]--> Bhutan: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use25,200 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular22,000 (2005)
    Roadways (km)total: 8,050 km
    paved: 4,991 km
    unpaved: 3,059 km (2003)


    Bhutan: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 54.39 years
    male: 54.65 years
    female: 54.11 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate100.44 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

    Bhutan : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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