TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Brazil Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 62.4% or about 519,522,000 ha of Brazil is forested, according to FAO. Of this 91.7% ( 476,573,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Brazil had 7,418,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Brazil lost an average of 2,765,850 ha or 0.48% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Brazil lost 9.6% of its forest cover, or around 55,317,000 ha. Please note, this data is updated regularly
here

Brazil's forests contain 62,607 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Brazil has some 3636 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 28.9% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 6.6% are threatened. Brazil is home to at least 56215 species of vascular plants. 3.9% of Brazil is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)596481442
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)47,52643,82342,678
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)13,30312,08711,696
Total forest carbon (Mt C)60,82955,90954,374
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)102116123
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Brazil Environmental profile | Brazil pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Brazil

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Brazil: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)832512
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)519522
Percent Forest Cover62
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)476573
Primary Forest, % total forest92
Other wooded land (1000 ha)43772
Percent other wooded land5




Brazil: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)47657392
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)355327
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)74181


Brazil: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
574839545943530494519522
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2890-3090-2194
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.51-0.57-0.42


Brazil: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
569855540767524729512104
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2909-2909-2866
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.5-0.51-0.53


Brazil: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
530041501926488254476573
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2812-2734-2336
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.54-0.55-0.48


Brazil: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
4984517657657418
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
19118331
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.382.185.17


Brazil: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
789234049


Brazil: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
81190


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
6300370
Brazil: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
12622124334512587635
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Brazil: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
68119653046367962607
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
121
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-282-325-214
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Brazil: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
-100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Brazil: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
11525492102117048100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
162348120552122573100


Brazil: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
255912592794097n.s.


Brazil: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-66109
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-65108
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-11


Brazil: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): No (-)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2000) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1965) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Brazil: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
--619-1080-


Brazil: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
32721854128816284204583454922212


Brazil: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Brazil: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south


    Brazil: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 6.96%
    permanent crops: 0.9%
    other: 92.15% (2001)
    Natural resourcesbauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber


    Brazil: Economy
    Economy - overview:Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazil's economy grew, on average, only 2.2% per year, as the country absorbed a series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a tribute to the resiliency of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President LULA DA SILVA. In 2004, Brazil enjoyed more robust growth that yielded increases in employment and real wages. The three pillars of the economic program are a floating exchange rate, an inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy, all reinforced by a series of IMF programs. The currency depreciated sharply in 2001 and 2002, which contributed to a dramatic current account adjustment; in 2003 to 2005, Brazil ran record trade surpluses and recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992. Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed to the surge in exports, and Brazil in 2005 surpassed the previous year's record export level. While economic management has been good, there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances - before falling as a percentage of GDP in 2005, while Brazil's foreign debt (a mix of private and public debt) is large in relation to Brazil's small (but growing) export base. Another challenge is maintaining economic growth over a period of time to generate employment and make the government debt burden more manageable.
    GDP - per capita$8,500 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)2.6% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscoffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 10%, industry: 39.4%, services: 50.6% (2005 est.)
    Industries textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
    Economic aid - recipient$30 billion (2002)
    Debt - external$211.4 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)22% (1998 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 20%, industry 14%, services 66% (2003 est.)


    Brazil: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)186,112,794
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.06%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)22.0
    Percent rural (2003)16.9%
    Median age (years)total: 27.81 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.93 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000 census)


    Largest Cities in Brazil

    Cities and urban areas in Brasil with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    Sao PauloBrazil1005770018505100
    Rio de JaneiroBrazil602930011246600
    SalvadorBrazil25395003173500
    Belo HorizonteBrazil23078004413800
    FortalezaBrazil22308002976200
    BrasiliaBrazil20895002089500
    CuritibaBrazil16423002835000
    ManausBrazil15246001524600
    RecifeBrazil14641003439500
    Porto AlegreBrazil13551003646400
    BelemBrazil13449001912600
    GoianiaBrazil11326001706300
    GuarulhosBrazil10968001096800
    CampinasBrazil9932001365500
    Nova IguacuBrazil959100959100
    Sao GoncaloBrazil921000921000
    Sao LuisBrazil8718001133800
    MaceioBrazil850500963300
    Duque de CaxiasBrazil797700797700
    NatalBrazil7379001097000
    Sao Bernardo do CampoBrazil714100714100
    TeresinaBrazil705900949600
    Campo GrandeBrazil685800685800
    OsascoBrazil669700669700
    Santo AndreBrazil665600665600
    Joao PessoaBrazil614900934900
    JaboataoBrazil613200613200
    ContagemBrazil566300566300
    Sao Jose dos CamposBrazil565400794300
    Ribeirao PretoBrazil526600789900
    SorocabaBrazil516400624500
    UberlandiaBrazil514400514400
    CuiabaBrazil502500730900
    AracajuBrazil479900741000
    NiteroiBrazil467300467300
    Sao Joao de MeritiBrazil460600460600
    Juiz de ForaBrazil456800456800
    Belford RoxoBrazil450600450600
    LondrinaBrazil449400656100
    Feira de SantanaBrazil447800447800
    JoinvilleBrazil435800435800
    SantosBrazil4232001556700
    AnanindeuaBrazil418500418500
    CamposBrazil378800378800
    MauaBrazil375200375200
    DiademaBrazil373300373300
    OlindaBrazil369500369500
    Vila VelhaBrazil367000367000
    Aparecida de GoianiaBrazil365500365500
    CarapicuibaBrazil353900353900
    Sao Jose do Rio PretoBrazil353200353200
    FlorianopolisBrazil351800712000
    Caxias do SulBrazil350700350700
    SerraBrazil345700345700
    Campina GrandeBrazil342000516700
    PiracicabaBrazil330000330000
    CariacicaBrazil325800325800
    BauruBrazil322500322500
    BetimBrazil320100320100
    CanoasBrazil316200316200
    Sao VicenteBrazil314900314900
    Moji das CruzesBrazil313300313300
    JundiaiBrazil312000312000
    PelotasBrazil310200310200
    VitoriaBrazil3062001412700
    Montes ClarosBrazil304800304800
    MacapaBrazil301600301600
    AnapolisBrazil297400297400
    MaringaBrazil294800294800
    FrancaBrazil293000293000
    ItaquaquecetubaBrazil292300292300
    Porto VelhoBrazil292000292000
    GuarujaBrazil282900282900
    Ponta GrossaBrazil277200277200
    PetropolisBrazil276400276400
    PaulistaBrazil273200273200
    Ribeirao das NevesBrazil271300271300
    Foz do IguacuBrazil269100583500
    BlumenauBrazil261500261500
    LimeiraBrazil256400256400
    UberabaBrazil251200251200
    Volta RedondaBrazil249600458400
    Governador ValadaresBrazil243900243900
    CaucaiaBrazil242700242700
    Novo HamburgoBrazil241300241300
    SuzanoBrazil241000241000
    Rio BrancoBrazil240500240500
    TaubateBrazil239900239900
    CascavelBrazil239000239000
    Santa MariaBrazil238400238400
    Vitoria da ConquistaBrazil234600234600
    ViamaoBrazil230400230400
    Varzea GrandeBrazil227000227000
    CaruaruBrazil225800225800
    ImperatrizBrazil222600222600
    BarueriBrazil222200222200
    GravataiBrazil221800221800
    Boa VistaBrazil221100221100
    IpatingaBrazil219000219000
    EmbuBrazil213500213500
    Juazeiro do NorteBrazil212800212800
    Praia GrandeBrazil209100209100
    SumareBrazil205600205600
    Taboao da SerraBrazil205500205500
    MageBrazil204400204400
    MossoroBrazil202200202200
    Santa LuziaBrazil200900200900
    Sao LeopoldoBrazil199600199600
    MariliaBrazil198900198900
    ItabunaBrazil196800196800
    Sao Jose dos PinhaisBrazil196800196800
    Presidente PrudenteBrazil196000196000
    JacareiBrazil195200195200
    Sao CarlosBrazil192900192900
    SantaremBrazil192300192300
    AlvoradaBrazil192200192200
    AmericanaBrazil189100189100
    Sete LagoasBrazil188300188300
    ColomboBrazil187400187400
    DivinopolisBrazil184400184400
    Rio GrandeBrazil183900183900
    MaracanauBrazil181800181800
    ItaboraiBrazil181400181400
    Sao JoseBrazil180700180700
    AraraquaraBrazil180000180000
    PetrolinaBrazil176600176600
    ItapeviBrazil175200175200
    Santa Barbara d'OesteBrazil173200173200
    Rio ClaroBrazil170900170900
    Passo FundoBrazil170100170100
    AracatubaBrazil169000169000
    Barra MansaBrazil168000168000
    Cachoeiro de ItapemirimBrazil167400167400
    HortolandiaBrazil166200166200
    CamacariBrazil164000164000
    IlheusBrazil160500160500
    LagesBrazil159600159600
    ArapiracaBrazil159000159000
    CriciumaBrazil158700158700
    CotiaBrazil157900157900
    IndaiatubaBrazil155700155700
    Nova FriburgoBrazil155500155500
    NilopolisBrazil155200155200
    DouradosBrazil155100155100
    Ferraz de VasconcelosBrazil150200150200
    ItajaiBrazil148700148700
    RondonopolisBrazil148600148600
    PalmasBrazil148400148400
    GuarapuavaBrazil146100146100
    Francisco MoratoBrazil144700144700
    ChapecoBrazil143700143700
    SobralBrazil143100143100
    LuzianiaBrazil142900142900
    Sao Caetano do SulBrazil142300142300
    Nossa Senhora do SocorroBrazil141500141500
    MarabaBrazil140700140700
    Cabo de Santo AgostinhoBrazil139100139100
    Poços de CaldasBrazil137000137000
    IbiriteBrazil136600136600
    CamaragibeBrazil136500136500
    Itapecerica da SerraBrazil136400136400
    JuazeiroBrazil133800133800
    MacaeBrazil132200132200
    ParnaibaBrazil130600130600
    JequieBrazil130000130000
    ItuBrazil129900129900
    CastanhalBrazil128800128800
    ParanaguaBrazil128600128600
    QueimadosBrazil128000128000
    SapucaiaBrazil125800125800
    BarreirasBrazil125700125700
    Angra dos ReisBrazil125500125500
    PindamonhangabaBrazil124700124700
    SabaraBrazil123200123200
    Mogi GuacuBrazil121700121700
    UruguaianaBrazil121000121000
    TeresopolisBrazil119600119600
    ParnamirimBrazil119000119000
    Lauro de FreitasBrazil118600118600
    ItapetiningaBrazil117600117600
    TimonBrazil117500117500
    Braganca PaulistaBrazil117000117000
    Patos de MinasBrazil116700116700
    AlagoinhasBrazil116200116200
    Rio VerdeBrazil113600113600
    CachoeirinhaBrazil112700112700
    CubataoBrazil112500112500
    JauBrazil112000112000
    BarbacenaBrazil110300110300
    AraguainaBrazil110000110000
    CaxiasBrazil109300109300
    Cabo FrioBrazil109200109200
    VarginhaBrazil108600108600
    BotucatuBrazil108300108300
    Ribeirao PiresBrazil108200108200
    PinhaisBrazil108100108100
    CatanduvaBrazil107500107500
    GaranhunsBrazil106800106800
    Santa RitaBrazil106300106300
    Jaragua do SulBrazil105900105900
    PalhocaBrazil105800105800
    Teixeira de FreitasBrazil105500105500
    Conselheiro LafaieteBrazil104200104200
    Franco da RochaBrazil104200104200
    Pouso AlegreBrazil103800103800
    ApucaranaBrazil103600103600
    Teofilo OtoniBrazil103600103600
    Vitoria de Santo AntaoBrazil103300103300
    ResendeBrazil103100103100


    Brazil: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use38.81 million (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular46,373,300 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 1,724,929 km
    paved: 94,871 km
    unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)


    Brazil: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 71.69 years
    male: 67.74 years
    female: 75.85 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate29.61 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.7% (2003 est.)

    Brazil : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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    "Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site.
    Same for "rainforests" and "rain forests". "Jungle" is generally not used.