TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Bulgaria Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 36.1% or about 3,927,000 ha of Bulgaria is forested, according to FAO. Of this 8.6% ( 338,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Bulgaria had 815,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Bulgaria lost an average of 30,000 ha or 0.90% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Bulgaria gained 18.0% of its forest cover, or around 600,000 ha.

Bulgaria's forests contain 202 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Bulgaria has some 535 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.7% are threatened. Bulgaria is home to at least 3572 species of vascular plants, of which 9.0% are endemic. 5.4% of Bulgaria is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Bulgaria

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Bulgaria: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)10864
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)3927
Percent Forest Cover36
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)338
Primary Forest, % total forest9
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Bulgaria: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3389
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)277471
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)81521


Bulgaria: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3327337536513927
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
55555
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.141.581.47


Bulgaria: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2295244227773112
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
151567
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.60.642.74


Bulgaria: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
157270304338
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1177
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
5.572.402.14


Bulgaria: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1032933874815
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-10-12-12
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.00-1.30-1.39


Bulgaria: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
731216800


Bulgaria: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
89110


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
9370


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
8700130
Bulgaria: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
656167287369100
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Bulgaria: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
127161182202
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
51
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
344
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
1.0n.s.n.s.


Bulgaria: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
11100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
8232171223


Bulgaria: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
245727993772100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
9439791938100


Bulgaria: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
132434179n.s.


Bulgaria: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-110119
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-2621
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-8498


Bulgaria: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2006)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2003) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1958) Sub-national forest law: No

Bulgaria: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
923935773435132930


Bulgaria: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
45987423591483406664235915500


Bulgaria: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Bulgaria: Environment
    Environment - current issuesair pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
    Natural hazardsearthquakes, landslides


    Bulgaria: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 40.02%
    permanent crops: 1.92%
    other: 58.06% (2001)
    Natural resourcesbauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land


    Bulgaria: Economy
    Economy - overview:Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. As a result, the government became committed to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. Minerals, including coal, copper, and zinc play an important role in industry. In 1997, macroeconomic stability was reinforced by the imposition of a fixed exchange rate of the lev against the German D-mark and the negotiation of an IMF standby agreement. Low inflation and steady progress on structural reforms improved the business environment; Bulgaria has averaged 4% growth since 2000 and has begun to attract significant amounts of foreign direct investment. Corruption in the public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime remain the largest challenges for Bulgaria.
    GDP - per capita$9,000 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.4% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsvegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 10.1%, industry: 30.2%, services: 59.7% (2005 est.)
    Industries electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
    Economic aid - recipient$300 million (2000 est.)
    Debt - external$15.46 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)13.4% (2002 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 11%, industry 32.7%, services 56.3% (3rd quarter 2004 est.)


    Bulgaria: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)7,450,349
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.89%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)67.4
    Percent rural (2003)30.2%
    Median age (years)total: 40.66 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.38 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)


    Largest Cities in Bulgaria

    Cities and urban areas in Bulgaria with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    SofiaBulgaria10926001187200
    PlovdivBulgaria339500339500
    VarnaBulgaria313400313400
    BurgasBulgaria192600192600
    RuseBulgaria161600161600
    Stara ZagoraBulgaria143500143500
    PlevenBulgaria121700121700
    SlivenBulgaria100300100300
    DobricBulgaria100000100000


    Bulgaria: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use2,868,200 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular2,597,500 (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 102,016 km
    paved: 93,855 km (including 328 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 8,161 km (2003)


    Bulgaria: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 72.03 years
    male: 68.41 years
    female: 75.87 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate20.55 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)less than 0.1% - note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

    Bulgaria : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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