TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

China Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 21.9% or about 206,861,000 ha of China is forested, according to FAO. Of this 5.6% ( 11,632,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. China had 77,157,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, China lost an average of 2,486,000 ha or 1.58% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, China gained 31.6% of its forest cover, or around 49,720,000 ha.

China's forests contain 6,203 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: China has some 2487 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 19.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 11.2% are threatened. China is home to at least 32200 species of vascular plants, of which 55.9% are endemic. 11.3% of China is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

China Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in China

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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China: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)942530
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)206861
Percent Forest Cover22
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)11632
Primary Forest, % total forest6
Other wooded land (1000 ha)102012
Percent other wooded land11




China: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)116326
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)11807157
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)7715737


China: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
157141177000193044206861
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
198632092763
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.201.751.39


China: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
115191.00122606.00125825.00129704.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
742742.00710.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.60.640.58


China: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
11646116321163211632
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-100
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.0100


China: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
41950543946721977157
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
124425651988
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.634.332.80


China: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
4129422400


China: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
68320


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
China: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
14684716901778231
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
111211


China: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
4414529558026203
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
30
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
8810180
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


China: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
22111


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
3152348749-42502


China: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
648145550263882100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
636007594863676100


China: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
4140-4735--


China: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
187015211322
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
186314621203
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
759120


China: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2008)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2006) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1979) Sub-national forest law: Yes

China: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
817599307175172871980828


China: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
3110651429094776996----


China: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] China: Environment
    Environment - current issuesair pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsfrequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence


    China: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 15.4%
    permanent crops: 1.25%
    other: 83.35% (2001)
    Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)


    China: Economy
    Economy - overview:China's economy during the last quarter-century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion. The process continues with key moves in 2005 including the sale of equity in China's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements in foreign exchange and bond markets. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than ten-fold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2005 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income and 150 million Chinese fall below international poverty lines. Economic development has generally been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior and there are large disparities in per capita income between regions. The government has struggled to (a) sustain adequate jobs growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. From 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. China has benefited from a huge expansion in computer Internet use, with more than 100 million users at the end of 2005. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's remarkable expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in growth of urban jobs. On 21 July 2005 China revalued its currency by 2.1 percent against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Reports of shortages of electric power in the summer of 2005 in southern China receded by September-October and did not have a substantial impact on China's economy. More power generating capacity is scheduled to come on line in 2006 as large scale investments are completed. The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party in October 2005 approved the draft 11th Five-Year Plan and the National People's Congress is expected to give final approval in March 2006. The plan calls for a 20 percent reduction in energy consumption per unit of GDP by 2010 and an estimated 45 percent increase in GDP by 2010. The plan states that conserving resources and protecting the environment are basic goals but it lacks details on the policies and reforms necessary to achieve these goals.
    GDP - per capita$6,200 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)9.2% (official data) (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 14.4%, industry and construction: 53.1%, services: 32.5% (2005 est.)
    Industries mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals; coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles and satellites
    Economic aid - recipientNA
    Debt - external$242 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)10% (2001 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)


    China: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)1,306,313,812
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.58%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)140.1
    Percent rural (2003)61.4%
    Median age (years)total: 32.26 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.72 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%


    Largest Cities in China

    Cities and urban areas in China with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    ShanghaiChina903120012005300
    BeijingChina71295009349300
    TianjinChina43445006927200
    WuhanChina39575004574200
    ShenyangChina34529006422700
    GuangzhouChina34337005370800
    HarbinChina27654004457800
    XianChina26565002965000
    ChongqingChina23116007161100
    KowloonChina22792002279200
    ChengduChina19271003326800
    ChangchunChina18867002744200
    TaiyuanChina18322001920900
    NanjingChina18000003115800
    JinanChina17284002444400
    DalianChina16575003195900
    QingdaoChina14495002561200
    LanzhouChina14345001930800
    FushunChina13840001384000
    ZhengzhouChina13477002162900
    ChangshaChina12617001586100
    DatongChina12536001377100
    AnshanChina12469002404100
    HangzhouChina12128003090600
    ShijiazhuangChina11903001701000
    GuiyangChina11615001910800
    Hong KongChina11593008208200
    JilinChina11428001523700
    UrumqiChina11207001369100
    ShenzhenChina11135001113500
    NanchangChina10776001620600
    FuzhouChina10369001534000
    NanningChina9133001443300
    XuzhouChina8931001111400
    KunmingChina8713001947400
    TangshanChina8212001480400
    LuoyangChina8192001499000
    WuxiChina8111001130900
    HefeiChina7840001340200
    ShantouChina7755001771200
    QiqiharChina7705001671600
    BenxiChina7640001175300
    SuzhouChina763500979400
    LiuzhouChina747700990700
    HohhotChina7245001041200
    XiningChina713500894900
    BaotouChina6986001443300
    HuangshiChina696200696200
    JinzhouChina670600902100
    FuxinChina664500969100
    HegangChina649700772200
    HandanChina6104001266400
    YingkouChina609700721700
    KaifengChina584400855700
    MudanjiangChina574900933000
    HengyangChina561600799000
    LiaoyangChina559100559100
    BaodingChina558800710100
    AnyangChina557900736200
    ChangzhouChina542900893800
    XinxiangChina535100716500
    DandongChina533600533600
    BengbuChina5235001118200
    WuhuChina517100688700
    JiamusiChina516600721700
    TuanmunChina510900510900
    ShatinChina510800510800
    PingdingshanChina507900507900
    XiangtanChina506700675300
    ZhuzhouChina497900680400
    YichangChina483800613400
    AomenChina479800762900
    PanzhihuaChina478000771100
    GuilinChina475900752600
    XiangfanChina475500565000
    NingboChina4724001388700
    XiamenChina470200733000
    WenzhouChina469000734000
    JiaozuoChina468700659800
    ZhanjiangChina442700618600
    ChangzhiChina438900659100
    PanjinChina416700527800
    YantaiChina408100476300
    TangguChina407400609800
    HaikouChina406600525800
    DongheChina401500401500
    ZhangjiakouChina389500882500
    MaanshanChina384600546400
    YangquanChina379900640200
    ShiyanChina379400493800
    LiaoyuanChina375800506200
    XianyangChina373500373500
    BaojiChina372600573200
    QitaiheChina361700551600
    DongguanChina360200505200
    XingtaiChina356200469100
    SipingChina354200354200
    ShashiChina353500353500
    AnqingChina343300343300
    YangzhouChina342200551600
    TaianChina341800500000
    WeifangChina336800336800
    ZhenjiangChina332700572200
    JingdezhenChina329300329300
    JinxiChina328800556700
    GuizhongChina326900326900
    ZhongshanChina316600316600
    TaipoChina311400311400
    QinhuangdaoChina309900665000
    QuanwanChina307900307900
    Hulan ErgiChina307700307700
    LuzhouChina306600503100
    FoshanChina300500300500
    YangjiangChina300200500000
    ZunyiChina297400497900
    JiujiangChina295400295400
    TielingChina295100295100
    DongyingChina294400804100
    TonglingChina293800293800
    ShaoyangChina292200292200
    XianggangziChina289300289300
    TiangjiaanChina281700281700
    YueyangChina279400279400
    YanchengChina278900278900
    WuzhouChina271700271700
    NanyangChina271300271300
    ZhangdianChina268400268400
    WafangdianChina267700267700
    SaertuChina266300266300
    SuizhouChina263400263400
    ZigongChina262300486600
    LinyiChina260600260600
    YingchengChina260000260000
    HezeChina257600257600
    DongchangChina253200253200
    XuchangChina252900252900
    SuihuaChina252100252100
    ChangdeChina251700251700
    ChifengChina250200250200
    ShaoguanChina249300249300
    YanjiChina248400530900
    YinchuanChina247500630900
    XinchengChina245500245500
    TongliaoChina245400245400
    MianyangChina245000245000
    RizhaoChina244700244700
    YibinChina243900243900
    HuaiyinChina242800680400
    CangzhouChina241700241700
    ChaozhouChina240000240000
    LaohekouChina239700239700
    MianchangChina238200238200
    BaichengChina237300237300
    NantongChina236500236500
    JixiChina2340001039200
    GuangyuanChina234000234000
    HebiChina233500233500
    TongchuanChina228000228000
    XiantaoChina226400226400
    JinzhouChina226100226100
    YuciChina225200225200
    RanghuluChina224600224600
    XintaiChina223300223300
    ShiongshuiChina221600221600
    HuizhouChina221300221300
    YiningChina220500220500
    LiaochengChina220300220300
    YiyangChina217900217900
    ChaoyangChina217500217500
    WuxueChina217100217100
    GanzhouChina216300216300
    DezhouChina215400215400
    HuaibeiChina214900587600
    LinfenChina213000213000
    ZhangzhouChina212900212900
    QingyiChina212600212600
    NanchongChina212400212400
    SanmingChina212200212200
    TianmenChina211300211300
    XinpuChina207200659800
    JiangmenChina205800567000
    RongchengChina204600204600
    QuanzhouChina203800203800
    XinyangChina202000202000
    SuzhouChina201800201800
    HaichengChina201200201200
    ZhuhaiChina200900200900
    ShuangyashanChina197700560900
    ShaoxingChina196700196700
    JiaxingChina196300196300
    ZouxianChina195500195500
    ShangqiuChina195400195400
    JiningChina194000194000
    KashiChina193400193400
    NanpingChina192900192900
    ChenzhouChina192600192600
    ShiheziChina191900191900
    KaiyuanChina190900190900
    ZaoyangChina189500189500
    AndaChina189300189300
    YunchengChina188800188800
    WanxianChina188600188600
    XuanhuaChina188200188200
    BadaojiangChina187500187500
    NeijiangChina183100183100
    LongfengChina182800182800
    JingzhouChina182700182700
    ZaozhuangChina182600474200
    QinchengChina182100182100
    AnshunChina181800181800
    EzhouChina181400181400
    PuyangChina180100180100
    YizhengChina180100180100
    DonglingChina180000180000
    MentougouChina179500179500
    BaiyinChina178600178600
    JiutaiChina178500178500
    MaomingChina177900177900
    LiupanshuiChina177300494900
    LuanChina176700176700
    JiningChina174900174900
    LaiyangChina174000174000
    JingmenChina172300172300
    MinhangChina171700171700
    BozhouChina171300171300
    KorlaChina170300170300
    JiaozhouChina169300169300
    HuzhouChina169000169000
    WeinanChina168900168900
    YulinChina168700168700
    DunhuaChina168300575300
    JianChina168100168100
    HailarChina167800167800
    HuanggangChina167800167800
    FuyangChina167200167200
    ChengdeChina166400166400
    FulingChina166200166200
    XiaoganChina164800164800
    WulanhaoteChina164700164700
    QiongguanouChina163900163900
    ZhichengChina163700163700
    GejiuChina163600163600
    XianningChina163500163500
    YuhongChina163400163400
    BeipiaoChina162700162700
    HengshanChina161700161700
    BoshanChina161200161200
    ZhaodongChina161200161200
    XinjiChina159200159200
    KailiChina159000159000
    DeyangChina158200158200
    LinheChina158200158200
    YichunChina157000157000
    DaliangChina156300156300
    SujiatunChina155500155500
    DingzhouChina155000155000
    HonghuChina154800154800
    GaomiChina154700154700
    GuangshuiChina154100154100
    YichunChina153400958800
    ZhoukouChina153200153200
    ZhaoqingChina152700152700
    BeianChina152100152100
    LeshanChina151400151400
    AchengChina151000151000
    XinzhouChina150900150900
    YuanlongChina150100150100
    DachangChina149000149000
    TongzhouChina148300148300
    AksuChina148100148100
    LinhaiChina147300147300
    ShangraoChina147300147300
    HanzhongChina146100146100
    ChizhouChina145900145900
    ChuzhouChina145900145900
    HuichengChina144900144900
    ZalantunChina144700144700
    ShanweiChina144200144200
    GongzhulingChina143700143700
    HengshuiChina143700143700
    BeihaiChina143600143600
    ShizuishanChina143600143600
    ChaohuChina143300143300
    YushanChina143300143300
    JinhuaChina143000143000
    JieshouChina142600142600
    HumenChina142500142500
    AnkangChina142200142200
    LongyanChina142000142000
    HuadianChina141800141800
    ZhumadianChina141800141800
    FuyuChina141400141400
    QujingChina140500140500
    DonghaiChina140100140100
    HuangyanChina140000140000
    XiaolanChina139500139500
    LeiyangChina138900138900
    HaibowanChina138700138700
    GangdongChina138300138300
    WudaChina137800137800
    ShuimogouChina137700137700
    YonganChina137500137500
    XuanzhouChina137000137000
    HuaihuaChina136900136900
    LangfangChina136500136500
    PuqiChina136500136500
    ShuangchengChina136500136500
    DaxianChina135900135900
    PingxiangChina135100528900
    JinchengChina135100135100
    JiagedagiChina134900134900
    TongrenChina134400134400
    YakeshiChina134100134100
    SanmenxiaChina133900133900
    LinchuanChina133300133300
    JiangyouChina132200132200
    JinchangChina131900131900
    DaliChina131700131700
    JiupuChina130000130000
    BaoshanChina129200129200
    ZhoucunChina128500128500
    LichengChina128300128300
    HonggangChina127600127600
    MachengChina127300127300
    YushuChina127200127200
    FengchengChina126500126500
    LuoheChina126300126300
    HamiChina126000126000
    HuangzhouChina125900125900
    NanchaChina125700125700
    XingyiChina125600125600
    JiaoheChina125400125400
    DaanChina125100125100
    DawukouChina124000124000
    GaozhouChina123400123400
    HanguChina122500122500
    LaiwuChina122100122100
    KaiyuanChina121500121500
    SuiningChina121500121500
    WuningChina121300121300
    AnbuChina121000121000
    ShishouChina120700120700
    LoudiChina120200120200
    BantouChina120100120100
    YiduChina120100120100
    XichangChina119400119400
    BinzhouChina118900118900
    HekouChina118800118800
    LinqingChina118700118700
    YananChina118700118700
    WenchengChina118400118400
    MingshuiChina117900117900
    ZhuozhouChina117900117900
    QianjiangChina116900116900
    RuianChina116500116500
    KaramayChina116300116300
    LengshuijiangChina116100116100
    QianguoChina115800115800
    ChangjiChina115700115700
    ShaheChina115600115600
    DaanChina115200115200
    TaonanChina115000115000
    LasaChina114800114800
    HailunChina114700114700
    TieliChina114500114500
    XinanChina114200114200
    ChunchengChina114100114100
    ShaowuChina114100114100
    HulanChina113900113900
    MeizhouChina113800113800
    DongtaiChina113600113600
    ChenghaiChina113200113200
    NeheChina113000113000
    ZhuchengChina112800112800
    QingyuanChina112400112400
    WuweiChina112400112400
    XiangdongChina112400112400
    RongchengChina111900111900
    BeibeiChina111800111800
    SuchengChina111800111800
    YingzhongChina111800111800
    LinshuiChina111400111400
    LongjiangChina111100111100
    DehuiChina110900110900
    YushanChina110500110500
    JiangyinChina110400110400
    JinmaChina110200110200
    TinshuiweiChina110200110200
    YaanChina109700109700
    PulandianChina109500109500
    BuheChina109200109200
    MajieChina109000109000
    AnqiuChina108400108400
    ZhaoyangChina108400108400
    TengzhouChina108200108200
    TaichengChina108000108000
    ZhaotongChina107900107900
    DidaoChina107500107500
    SongjiangChina107500107500
    ZhalainuoerChina107100107100
    ShunyiChina106800106800
    WeihaiChina106200106200
    YuyaoChina106200106200
    JishuChina106000106000
    JiayuguanChina104500104500
    ShenjiamenChina104400104400
    SanbuChina104300104300
    JinchengjiangChina104100104100
    XingchengChina103900103900
    ZhaochengChina103400103400
    PingliangChina103200103200
    ZhujiChina103000103000
    LianranChina102800102800
    XilinhaoteChina102500102500
    YunyangChina102400102400
    ZhangyeChina102400102400
    JieshiChina102100102100
    LinxiChina101700101700
    MeihekouChina101400101400
    XinshiChina101100101100
    LishuiChina101000101000
    ShiqiaoChina100500100500
    NonganChina100000100000


    China: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use263 million (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular269 million (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 1,809,829 km
    paved: 1,447,682 km (with at least 29,745 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 362,147 km (2003)


    China: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 72.27 years
    male: 70.65 years
    female: 74.09 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate24.18 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.1% (2003 est.)

    China : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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