TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Colombia Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 54.5% or about 60,499,000 ha of Colombia is forested, according to FAO. Of this 14.1% ( 8,543,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Colombia had 405,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Colombia lost an average of 101,000 ha or 0.16% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Colombia lost 3.2% of its forest cover, or around 2,020,000 ha.

Colombia's forests contain 6,805 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Colombia has some 3429 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 17.6% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 10.1% are threatened. Colombia is home to at least 51220 species of vascular plants, of which 29.3% are endemic. 8.6% of Colombia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)846764
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)8,0547,2407,092
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)2,2101,9601,914
Total forest carbon (Mt C)10,2649,2009,006
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)122138141
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Colombia Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Colombia

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Colombia: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)110950
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)60499
Percent Forest Cover55
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)8543
Primary Forest, % total forest14
Other wooded land (1000 ha)22727
Percent other wooded land20




Colombia: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)854314
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)5155185
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)4051


Colombia: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
62519615096100460499
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-101-101-101
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.16-0.16-0.17


Colombia: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
62382612546067460094
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-113-113-116
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.2-0.18-0.19


Colombia: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
8828868586148543
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-14-14-14
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.16-0.16-0.17


Colombia: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
137255330405
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
121515
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
6.415.294.18


Colombia: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
1311400072


Colombia: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
226711


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
00100


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Colombia: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
8982148---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Colombia: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
7032691868626805
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
112
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-11-11-11
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Colombia: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Colombia: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
402125412106-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
77981077211225-


Colombia: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
n.s.-153--


Colombia: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Colombia: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1996)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2000) Under revision
National forest law (year): Incorporated in other law (1974) Sub-national forest law: No

Colombia: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


Colombia: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Colombia: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Colombia: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardshighlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts


    Colombia: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 2.42%
    permanent crops: 1.67%
    other: 95.91% (2001)
    Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower


    Colombia: Economy
    Economy - overview:Colombia's economy has been on a recovery trend during the past two years despite a serious armed conflict. The economy continues to improve thanks to austere government budgets, focused efforts to reduce public debt levels, and an export-oriented growth focus. Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE range from reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. New exploration is needed to offset declining oil production. On the positive side, several international financial institutions have praised the economic reforms introduced by URIBE, succeeded in reducing the public-sector deficit below 1.5% of GDP. The government's economic policy and democratic security strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence in the economy, particularly within the business sector. Coffee prices have recovered from previous lows as the Colombian coffee industry pursues greater market shares in developed countries such as the United States.
    GDP - per capita$7,100 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)4.3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscoffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 12.5%, industry: 34.3%, services: 53.3% (2005 est.)
    Industries textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
    Economic aid - recipientNA
    Debt - external$37.06 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)59% (2001 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 22.7%, industry 18.7%, services 58.5% (2000 est.)


    Colombia: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)42,954,279
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.49%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)41.4
    Percent rural (2003)23.5%
    Median age (years)total: 26.04 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.56 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%


    Largest Cities in Colombia

    Cities and urban areas in Colombia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    BogotaColombia66805007798000
    CaliColombia22038002800600
    MedellinColombia19324002994400
    BarranquillaColombia12984001870700
    CartagenaColombia853900853900
    CucutaColombia657100735000
    BucaramangaColombia542400955500
    IbagueColombia401400401400
    PereiraColombia386900585800
    Santa MartaColombia372200372200
    BelloColombia355000355000
    PastoColombia354000354000
    ManizalesColombia342900342900
    NeivaColombia318600318600
    SoledadColombia314200314200
    ArmeniaColombia300800300800
    VillavicencioColombia290400290400
    SoachaColombia284100284100
    ValleduparColombia279900279900
    MonteriaColombia253900253900
    ItaguiColombia244400244400
    SincelejoColombia237000237000
    PalmiraColombia233100233100
    BuenaventuraColombia230700230700
    FloridablancaColombia229000229000
    PopayanColombia207000207000
    BarrancabermejaColombia185900185900
    Dos QuebradasColombia167400167400
    TuluaColombia159700159700
    EnvigadoColombia143500143500
    CartagoColombia132900132900
    GirardotColombia120100120100
    MaicaoColombia117500117500
    FlorenciaColombia115400115400
    BugaColombia114300114300
    SogamosoColombia113900113900
    TunjaColombia109500109500


    Colombia: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use8,768,100 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular6,186,200 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 112,998 km
    paved: 26,000 km
    unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)


    Colombia: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 71.72 years
    male: 67.88 years
    female: 75.7 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate20.97 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.7% (2003 est.)

    Colombia : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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