TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Estonia Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 52.3% or about 2,217,000 ha of Estonia is forested, according to FAO. Of this 43.5% ( 964,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Estonia had 168,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Estonia lost an average of 6,350 ha or 0.30% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Estonia gained 6.1% of its forest cover, or around 127,000 ha.

Estonia's forests contain 165 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Estonia has some 351 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.0% are threatened. Estonia is home to at least 1630 species of vascular plants. 7.6% of Estonia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Estonia

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Estonia: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)4239
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)2217
Percent Forest Cover52
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)964
Primary Forest, % total forest43
Other wooded land (1000 ha)133
Percent other wooded land3




Estonia: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)96443
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)108549
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1688


Estonia: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2090224322522217
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
152-7
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.710.08-0.31


Estonia: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2090207320822049
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2-2-2
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.1-0.08-0.12


Estonia: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
-976980964
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1-3
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.08-0.33


Estonia: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
-170170168
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.0-0.24


Estonia: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
6612901300


Estonia: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
404317


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
80200


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
100n.s.000
Estonia: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
449203253197100
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
644


Estonia: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
-168167165
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
74
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-n.s.n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
-n.s.n.s.


Estonia: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
1100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
13212181


Estonia: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
-8975456598
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
-2194159098


Estonia: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
21526---


Estonia: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
10106
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
10106
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Estonia: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1997)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2002) Under revision
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (2007) Sub-national forest law: No

Estonia: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
137232272724132


Estonia: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
--1398-1384-2783


Estonia: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Estonia: Environment
    Environment - current issuesair polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardssometimes flooding occurs in the spring


    Estonia: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 16.04%
    permanent crops: 0.45%
    other: 83.51% (2001)
    Natural resourcesoil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud


    Estonia: Economy
    Economy - overview:Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization and the European Union, has transitioned effectively to a modern market economy with strong ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The current account deficit remains high; however, the state budget is essentially in balance, and public debt is low.
    GDP - per capita$16,400 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)7.1% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productspotatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 4.1%, industry: 29.1%, services: 66.8% (2005 est.)
    Industries engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
    Economic aid - recipient$108 million (2000)
    Debt - external$10.09 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)NA (2000)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 11%, industry 20%, services 69% (1999 est.)


    Estonia: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)1,332,893
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.65%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)30.8
    Percent rural (2003)30.6%
    Median age (years)total: 39.06 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.39 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% (2000 census)


    Largest Cities in Estonia

    Cities and urban areas in Estonia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    TallinnEstonia386100386100
    TartuEstonia100500100500


    Estonia: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use475,000 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular881,000 (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 56,849 km
    paved: 13,303 km (including 99 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 45,546 km (2003)


    Estonia: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 71.77 years
    male: 66.28 years
    female: 77.6 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate7.87 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)1.1% (2001 est.)

    Estonia : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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