TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Ethiopia Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 11.2% or about 12,296,000 ha of Ethiopia is forested, according to FAO. Ethiopia had 511,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Ethiopia lost an average of 140,900 ha or 0.93% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Ethiopia lost 18.6% of its forest cover, or around 2,818,000 ha.

Ethiopia's forests contain 219 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Ethiopia has some 1408 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 7.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.6% are threatened. Ethiopia is home to at least 6603 species of vascular plants, of which 15.1% are endemic. 4.9% of Ethiopia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)221310
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)794536421
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)242161126
Total forest carbon (Mt C)1,037698547
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)485357
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Ethiopia Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Ethiopia

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Ethiopia: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)109631
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)12296
Percent Forest Cover11
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)44650
Percent other wooded land41




Ethiopia: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1178596
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)5114


Ethiopia: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
15114137051300012296
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-141-141-141
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.97-1.05-1.11


Ethiopia: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
14623.0013214.0012509.0011785.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-141-141.00-143.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.0-0.96-1.08


Ethiopia: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Ethiopia: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
491491491511
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
004
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000.80


Ethiopia: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
40009600


Ethiopia: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
10000


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Ethiopia: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
26421--25
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
1032


Ethiopia: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
289254236219
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
18
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-4-4-3
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Ethiopia: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Ethiopia: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
-28123368100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
-100376108548100


Ethiopia: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


Ethiopia: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Ethiopia: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2007)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2008) In formulation
National forest law (year): No national forest law (-) Sub-national forest law: No

Ethiopia: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
----675-


Ethiopia: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Ethiopia: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Ethiopia: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardsgeologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts


    Ethiopia: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 10.71%
    permanent crops: 0.75%
    other: 88.54% (2001)
    Natural resourcessmall reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower


    Ethiopia: Economy
    Economy - overview:Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting for half of GDP, 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $156 million in 2002, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war with Eritrea in 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee production. In November 2001, Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Under Ethiopia's land tenure system, the government owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Drought struck again late in 2002, leading to a 2% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weather patterns late in 2003 helped agricultural and GDP growth recover in 2004-05.
    GDP - per capita$800 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)6.5% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 40.1%, industry: 12.7%, services: 47.2% (2005 est.)
    Industries food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
    Economic aid - recipient$308 million (FY00/01)
    Debt - external$2.9 billion (2001 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)50% (2004 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, industry and construction 8%, government and services 12% (1985)


    Ethiopia: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)73,053,286
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.36%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)65.2
    Percent rural (2003)84.4%
    Median age (years)total: 17.75 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.33 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%


    Largest Cities in Ethiopia

    Cities and urban areas in Ethiopia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    Addis AbabaEthiopia26385002638500
    Dire DawaEthiopia208700208700
    NazretEthiopia161800161800
    GondarEthiopia142100142100
    DeseEthiopia123200123200
    Mek'eleEthiopia122700122700
    Bahir DarEthiopia121700121700
    JimmaEthiopia112500112500


    Ethiopia: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use435,000 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular97,800 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 33,856 km
    paved: 4,367 km
    unpaved: 29,489 km (2003)


    Ethiopia: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 48.83 years
    male: 47.67 years
    female: 50.03 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate95.32 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)4.4% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and hepatitis E
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis are high risks in some locations
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)

    Ethiopia : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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