TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Germany Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 31.8% or about 11,076,000 ha of Germany is forested, according to FAO. Germany had 5,283,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Germany lost an average of 16,750 ha or 0.16% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Germany gained 3.1% of its forest cover, or around 335,000 ha.

Germany's forests contain 1,405 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Germany has some 648 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.9% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.5% are threatened. Germany is home to at least 2682 species of vascular plants, of which 0.2% are endemic. 29.3% of Germany is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Germany

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Germany: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)34877
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)11076
Percent Forest Cover32
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Germany: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)579352
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)528348


Germany: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
10741110761107611076
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
3400
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.3100


Germany: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
5620.05793.05793.05793.0
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1717.00.0
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.30.30.0


Germany: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Germany: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
5121528352835283
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1600
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.310.00.0


Germany: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
002607400


Germany: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
53444


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
--0


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Germany: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
3492315---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Germany: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
981119312831405
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
127
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
211824
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
1.61.62.2


Germany: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
1100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
269--26--


Germany: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
370434726558788100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
76461249716548100


Germany: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
25892385633390n.s.


Germany: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--49
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Germany: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2009)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (1999) Under revision
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1975) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Germany: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


Germany: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
--157937-0-157937


Germany: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Germany: Environment
    Environment - current issuesemissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsflooding


    Germany: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 33.85%
    permanent crops: 0.59%
    other: 65.56% (2001)
    Natural resourcescoal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land


    Germany: Economy
    Economy - overview:Germany's affluent and technologically powerful economy - the fifth largest in the world - has become one of the slowest growing economies in the euro zone. A quick turnaround is not in the offing in the foreseeable future. Growth in 2001-03 fell short of 1%, rising to 1.7% in 2004 before falling back to 0.8% in 2005. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Germany's aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities in the labor market - including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Germany to meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are further addressed. In the short run, however, the fall in government revenues and the rise in expenditures have raised the deficit above the EU's 3% debt limit.
    GDP - per capita$29,700 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)0.8% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productspotatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 1.1%, industry: 28.6%, services: 70.3% (2005 est.)
    Industries among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
    Population below poverty line (%)NA
    Debt - external$3.626 trillion (30 June 2005)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 2.8%, industry 33.4%, services 63.8% (1999)


    Germany: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)82,431,390
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.00%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)236.0
    Percent rural (2003)11.9%
    Median age (years)total: 42.16 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.39 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)


    Largest Cities in Germany

    Cities and urban areas in Germany with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    BerlinGermany32895003942600
    HamburgGermany16883003260700
    MunichGermany11611002341700
    Koln-Ruhr AreaGermany96680011297800
    FrankfurtGermany6455002717800
    EssenGermany589900589900
    DortmundGermany588300588300
    StuttgartGermany5754002330300
    DusseldorfGermany568300568300
    BremenGermany5282001008900
    DuisburgGermany517700517700
    HannoverGermany5168001106100
    NurnbergGermany4868001008500
    DresdenGermany4136001030800
    LeipzigGermany4098001417600
    BochumGermany387600387600
    WuppertalGermany368600368600
    BielefeldGermany3220001419000
    BonnGermany311800311800
    MannheimGermany3059001456000
    GelsenkirchenGermany278100278100
    KarlsruheGermany277500580500
    MonchengladbachGermany266400266400
    WiesbadenGermany266000266000
    MuensterGermany265500265500
    ChemnitzGermany2561001081800
    AugsburgGermany252300252300
    HalleGermany245300245300
    BraunschweigGermany242400242400
    AachenGermany2403001238600
    KrefeldGermany238200238200
    KielGermany231700231700
    MagdeburgGermany230000230000
    OberhausenGermany221900221900
    LubeckGermany213200213200
    HagenGermany205500205500
    FreiburgGermany203000203000
    ErfurtGermany195100195100
    KasselGermany194600194600
    RostockGermany193300193300
    MainzGermany190600190600
    SaarbruckenGermany179500179500
    HammGermany178000178000
    HerneGermany175200175200
    MulheimGermany174000174000
    OsnabruckGermany164200164200
    SolingenGermany163900163900
    LudwigshafenGermany163400163400
    LeverkusenGermany162500162500
    OldenburgGermany156800156800
    NeussGermany150000150000
    HeidelbergGermany138100138100
    PaderbornGermany137700137700
    DarmstadtGermany136700136700
    GottingenGermany129800129800
    PotsdamGermany128000128000
    WurzburgGermany125300125300
    RecklinghausenGermany124800124800
    RegensburgGermany124200124200
    BottropGermany122000122000
    BremerhavenGermany117900117900
    HeilbronnGermany117900117900
    IngolstadtGermany117900117900
    WolfsburgGermany117500117500
    RemscheidGermany117100117100
    PforzheimGermany116800116800
    UlmGermany116300116300
    OffenbachGermany115600115600
    FurthGermany111700111700
    SalzgitterGermany111500111500
    ReutlingenGermany110900110900
    SiegenGermany110000110000
    GeraGermany109800109800
    KoblenzGermany108600108600
    CottbusGermany107300107300
    Bergisch GladbachGermany106300106300
    MoersGermany106000106000
    WittenGermany103800103800


    Germany: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use54.35 million (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular64.8 million (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 231,581 km
    paved: 231,581 km (including 12,037 km of expressways) (2003)


    Germany: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 78.65 years
    male: 75.66 years
    female: 81.81 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate4.16 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.1% (2001 est.)

    Germany : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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