TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Ghana Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 21.7% or about 4,940,000 ha of Ghana is forested, according to FAO. Of this 8.0% ( 395,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Ghana had 260,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Ghana lost an average of 125,400 ha or 1.68% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Ghana lost 33.7% of its forest cover, or around 2,508,000 ha.

Ghana's forests contain 381 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Ghana has some 1185 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.8% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.0% are threatened. Ghana is home to at least 3725 species of vascular plants, of which 1.2% are endemic. 4.6% of Ghana is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)832
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)410225196
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1206355
Total forest carbon (Mt C)530288251
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)6794103
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Ghana Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Ghana

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Ghana: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)22754
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)4940
Percent Forest Cover22
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)395
Primary Forest, % total forest8
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Ghana: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3958
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)428587
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)2605


Ghana: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
7448609455174940
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-135-115-115
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.99-1.97-2.19


Ghana: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
7398.006034.005357.004680.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-136-136.00-135.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.8-1.84-2.24


Ghana: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
395395395395
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Ghana: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
5060160260
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
12020
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.8421.6710.20


Ghana: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
237110068


Ghana: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
10000


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Ghana: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
29159---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Ghana: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
564465423381
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
77
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-10-8-8
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Ghana: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
50080


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
22----


Ghana: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
13821298150881
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
148332378023780100


Ghana: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
53----


Ghana: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
323
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Ghana: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1994)
Sub-national forest policy: -
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (1993) Under revision
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1998) Sub-national forest law: -

Ghana: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
3495-3549-3576-


Ghana: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Ghana: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Ghana: Environment
    Environment - current issuesrecurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Natural hazardsdry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts


    Ghana: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 16.26%
    permanent crops: 9.67%
    other: 74.07% (2001)
    Natural resourcesgold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone


    Ghana: Economy
    Economy - overview:Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 34% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, but was included in a G8 debt relief program decided upon at the Gleneagles Summit in July 2005. Priorities under its current $38 million PRGF include tighter monetary and fiscal policies, accelerated privatization, and improvement of social services. Receipts from the gold sector helped sustain GDP growth in 2005 along with record high prices for Ghana's largest cocoa crop to date. Inflation should ease, but remain a major internal problem. Ghana also remains a candidate country to benefit from Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) funding that could assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural export sector. A final decision on its MCC bid is expected for spring 2006.
    GDP - per capita$2,500 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)4.3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 35.5%, industry: 25.6%, services: 39% (2005 est.)
    Industries mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building
    Economic aid - recipient$6.9 billion (1999)
    Debt - external$7.084 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)31.4% (1992 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 60%, industry 15%, services 25% (1999 est.)


    Ghana: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)21,029,853
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.25%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)91.1
    Percent rural (2003)54.6%
    Median age (years)total: 20.45 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3.02 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)black African 98.5% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)


    Largest Cities in Ghana

    Cities and urban areas in Ghana with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    AccraGhana16054002756100
    KumasiGhana627600929100
    TamaleGhana269200269200
    ObuasiGhana122600122600


    Ghana: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use302,300 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular799,900 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 47,787 km
    paved: 8,563 km
    unpaved: 39,224 km (2003)


    Ghana: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 58.47 years
    male: 57.7 years
    female: 59.26 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate51.43 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)3.1% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2004)

    Ghana : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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