TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

India Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 23.0% or about 68,434,000 ha of India is forested, according to FAO. Of this 22.9% ( 15,701,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. India had 10,211,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, India lost an average of 224,750 ha or 0.35% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, India gained 7.0% of its forest cover, or around 4,495,000 ha.

India's forests contain 2,800 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: India has some 2356 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 18.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 10.8% are threatened. India is home to at least 18664 species of vascular plants, of which 26.8% are endemic. 4.9% of India is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)634336
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)4,3563,4643,151
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1,238968873
Total forest carbon (Mt C)5,5934,4314,024
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)89104112
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

India Environmental profile | India pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in India

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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India: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)297319
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)68434
Percent Forest Cover23
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)15701
Primary Forest, % total forest23
Other wooded land (1000 ha)3267
Percent other wooded land1




India: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1570123
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)4252262
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1021115


India: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
63939653906770968434
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
145464145
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.220.700.21


India: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
58223582235822358223
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.000


India: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
15701157011570115701
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


India: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
57167167948610211
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
145464145
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.295.771.48


India: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
25162903000


India: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
86140


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
6300370
India: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
548980550494026
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


India: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
2223237726152800
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
41
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
154837
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


India: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
1605100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
83902549943832988244


India: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
3505541173459576
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
21316924583726075220


India: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
6253709513313481n.s.


India: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
638560786213
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
636060536188
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
252525


India: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1988)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (1999) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1927) Sub-national forest law: Yes

India: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
180596417967341791194


India: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
341819------


India: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] India: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsdroughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes


    India: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 54.4%
    permanent crops: 2.74%
    other: 42.86% (2001)
    Natural resourcescoal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land


    India: Economy
    Economy - overview:India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for half of India's output with less than one quarter of its labor force. About two-thirds of the workforce is in agriculture, leading the UPA government to articulate an economic reform program that includes developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government controls on foreign trade and investment have been reduced in some areas, but high tariffs (averaging 20% on non-agricultural items in 2004) and limits on foreign direct investment are still in place. The government in 2005 liberalized investment in the civil aviation, telecom, and construction sectors. Privatization of government-owned industries essentially came to a halt in 2005, and continues to generate political debate; continued social, political, and economic rigidities hold back needed initiatives. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of more than 6.8% in the decade since 1994, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India probably achieved greater than 7 percent GDP growth in 2005, significantly expanding manufacturing. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the World Bank and others worry about the combined state and federal budget deficit, running at approximately 9% of GDP. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem.
    GDP - per capita$3,400 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)7.1% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 20.6%, industry: 28.1%, services: 51.4% (2005 est.)
    Industries textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
    Economic aid - recipient$2.9 billion (FY98/99)
    Debt - external$119.7 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)25% (2002 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 60%, industry 17%, services 23% (1999)


    India: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)1,080,264,388
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.40%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)363.3
    Percent rural (2003)71.7%
    Median age (years)total: 24.66 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.78 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)


    Largest Cities in India

    Cities and urban areas in India with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    Mumbai (Bombay)India1214710012147100
    DelhiIndia1000920016713200
    CalcuttaIndia467000011387400
    BangaloreIndia43761005797900
    Chennai (Madras)India42986006550100
    AhmadabadIndia35840003584000
    HyderabadIndia35173005641700
    PuneIndia25897003828900
    KanpurIndia25816002743000
    SuratIndia24813002866400
    JaipurIndia23697002369700
    LucknowIndia22505002250500
    NagpurIndia20914002091400
    IndoreIndia16286001671100
    BhopalIndia14619001483200
    LudhianaIndia14223001422300
    PatnaIndia14038001740800
    VadodaraIndia13315001521500
    AgraIndia12846001284600
    VaranasiIndia11222001353900
    NashikIndia10980001098000
    MiratIndia10952001095200
    HaoraIndia10284001028400
    PimpriIndia10261001026100
    AllahabadIndia10096001009600
    AmritsarIndia994800994800
    VisakhapatnamIndia9885001355400
    RajkotIndia9855001021700
    JabalpurIndia9701001139000
    KoyampatturIndia941100941100
    MaduraiIndia940900940900
    SrinagarIndia912400912400
    SholapurIndia890100890100
    RanchiIndia863000879700
    JodhpurIndia862900872800
    GwaliorIndia843100882700
    VijayawadaIndia8416001030900
    ChandigarhIndia824600824600
    GuwahatiIndia823800830500
    HubliIndia801400801400
    TiruchchirappalliIndia760600863700
    ThiruvananthapuramIndia759300906600
    MysoreIndia756800756800
    Navi MumbaiIndia717700717700
    JalandharIndia714900764400
    BareliIndia713500744100
    KotaIndia709500718500
    SelamIndia706800706800
    AligarhIndia6808001116300
    BhubaneswarIndia6599001455300
    MoradabadIndia653800653800
    GorakhpurIndia636800636800
    RaipurIndia617000617000
    BhiwandiIndia610400633500
    Kochi (Cochin)India608100608100
    JamshedpurIndia5815001123300
    BhilaiIndia564700941600
    AmravatiIndia5601001031100
    BikanerIndia539300539300
    WarangalIndia538900588500
    Mira BhayandarIndia530500530500
    GunturIndia524800524800
    BhavnagarIndia520900527700
    DurgapurIndia502600502600
    AsansolIndia495800495800
    KolhapurIndia494700643500
    AjmerIndia494700494700
    SaharanpurIndia461800461800
    Dehra DunIndia456600538200
    JamnagarIndia456500569400
    BhatparaIndia450600450600
    Sangli-MirajIndia445200445200
    KozhikkodIndia445100445100
    NandedIndia439000439000
    UjjainIndia438300439100
    GulbargaIndia436300444100
    TirunelveliIndia419300440000
    MalegaonIndia417200417200
    AkolaIndia407800407800
    BelgaumIndia407400516100
    MangaluruIndia406500406500
    BokaroIndia401900401900
    South Dum DumIndia399800399800
    UdaipurIndia396900396900
    MaheshtalaIndia396800396800
    JhansiIndia390700472300
    GayaIndia390700390700
    JammuIndia385800619500
    JalgaonIndia375800375800
    DavanagereIndia370900370900
    KollamIndia368500368500
    PanihatiIndia355200355200
    TiruppurIndia353300553400
    DhuleIndia348100348100
    BhagalpurIndia347000356500
    RajpurIndia343000343000
    ThrissurIndia323700336500
    BellaryIndia323200323200
    MuzaffarnagarIndia322600322600
    KorbaIndia321900321900
    KamarhatiIndia320500320500
    RajamahendriIndia319500416300
    AhmadnagarIndia313500313500
    MuzaffarpurIndia311400311400
    PatialaIndia308800329600
    ChandrapurIndia303400303400
    Ni DilliIndia300500300500
    KultiIndia295700295700
    KakinadaIndia295600375900
    BrahmapurIndia295400295400
    NizamabadIndia292600292600
    RohtakIndia292400300300
    BarddhamanIndia291500291500
    RampurIndia287000287000
    BhilwaraIndia285700285700
    FirozabadIndia284200440700
    ShimogaIndia279500279500
    Rajarhat GopalpurIndia277100277100
    KarnulIndia273000326900
    DarbhangaIndia272000272000
    BilaspurIndia270400270400
    Lalbahadur NagarIndia267100267100
    PanipatIndia266800360900
    BallyIndia266700266700
    AlwarIndia265300265300
    ParbhaniIndia264200264200
    IchalkaranjiIndia262600291400
    HisarIndia261800268200
    BaranagarIndia255500255500
    TumkurIndia253400253400
    BijapurIndia250800258300
    RamagundamIndia240100241200
    JalnaIndia240100240100
    SagarIndia236900236900
    BiharIndia236500236500
    BarasatIndia236000236000
    DewasIndia235200235200
    AizawlIndia234200234200
    FarrukhabadIndia232300247300
    TirupatiIndia232100232100
    SatnaIndia229900229900
    RaurkelaIndia229000493800
    RatlamIndia225600238000
    AnantapurIndia225300225300
    PondicherryIndia225100515600
    BathindaIndia221600221600
    ImphalIndia221500250800
    ThuthukkudiIndia220300247600
    ThanjavurIndia219900219900
    HapurIndia216100216100
    EtawahIndia215600215600
    GanganagarIndia214900214900
    KarnalIndia214600226400
    NagercoilIndia212200212200
    KharagpurIndia212000458500
    RaichurIndia209700209700
    MirzapurIndia209300209300
    BharatpurIndia208400209100
    SikandarabadIndia208200208200
    KarimnagarIndia207800220000
    UlubariaIndia206000206000
    DhanbadIndia2028001085100
    DindigulIndia200500200500


    India: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use48.917 million (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular26,154,400 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 3,851,440 km
    paved: 2,411,001 km
    unpaved: 1,440,439 km (2002)


    India: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 64.35 years
    male: 63.57 years
    female: 65.16 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate56.29 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.9% (2001 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some locations
    animal contact disease: rabies (2004)

    India : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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