TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Indonesia Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 52.1% or about 94,432,000 ha of Indonesia is forested, according to FAO. Of this 50.0% ( 47,236,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Indonesia had 3,549,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Indonesia lost an average of 1,205,650 ha or 1.02% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Indonesia lost 20.3% of its forest cover, or around 24,113,000 ha.

Indonesia's forests contain 13,017 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Indonesia has some 3305 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 31.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 9.9% are threatened. Indonesia is home to at least 29375 species of vascular plants, of which 59.6% are endemic. 4.5% of Indonesia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)165127121
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)18,48615,56515,075
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)4,9864,1554,018
Total forest carbon (Mt C)23,47219,72019,093
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)142155158
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Indonesia Environmental profile | Indonesia pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Indonesia

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Indonesia: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)181157
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)94432
Percent Forest Cover52
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)47236
Primary Forest, % total forest50
Other wooded land (1000 ha)21003
Percent other wooded land12




Indonesia: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)4723650
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)4364746
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)35494


Indonesia: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
118545994099785794432
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1914-310-685
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.75-0.31-0.71


Indonesia: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
118545957379415890883
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2281-2281-485
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.9-1.92-0.51


Indonesia: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
-492704775047236
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
--304-103
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
--0.62-0.22


Indonesia: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
-367236993549
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-5-30
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.15-0.82


Indonesia: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
5324160007


Indonesia: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
9190


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
43n.s.57n.s.0
Indonesia: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
11343120---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Indonesia: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
16335151821429913017
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
138
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-115-177-256
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
1.5-1.3-1.7


Indonesia: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
5100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Indonesia: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
254851779214428100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
14468010109886396-


Indonesia: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


Indonesia: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-4220
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-3917
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-33


Indonesia: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2006)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2000) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1999) Sub-national forest law: No

Indonesia: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
148091315548181680318


Indonesia: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
334766------


Indonesia: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Indonesia: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Natural hazardsoccasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires


    Indonesia: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 11.32%
    permanent crops: 7.23%
    other: 81.45% (2001)
    Natural resourcespetroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver


    Indonesia: Economy
    Economy - overview:Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has struggled to overcome the Asian financial crisis, and still grapples with high unemployment, a fragile banking sector, endemic corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a poor investment climate, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Indonesia became a net oil importer in 2004 because of declining production and lack of new exploration investment. The cost of subsidizing domestic fuel placed increasing strain on the budget in 2005, and combined with indecisive monetary policy, contributed to a run on the currency in August, prompting the government to enact a 126% average fuel price hike in October. The resulting inflation and interest rate hikes will dampen growth prospects in 2006. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth. In late December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami took 131,000 lives with another 37,000 missing, left some 570,000 displaced persons, and caused an estimated $4.5 billion in damages and losses. Terrorist incidents in 2005 have slowed tourist arrivals. Indonesia experienced several human cases of avian influenza in late 2005, sparking concerns of a pandemic.
    GDP - per capita$3,700 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 15.1%, industry: 44.5%, services: 40.4% (2005 est.)
    Industries petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
    Economic aid - recipient$43 billion
    Debt - external$140.6 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)15.2% (2004)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)


    Indonesia: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)241,973,879
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.45%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)132.5
    Percent rural (2003)54.4%
    Median age (years)total: 26.48 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.44 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%


    Largest Cities in Indonesia

    Cities and urban areas in Indonesia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    JakartaIndonesia1081040017369200
    BandungIndonesia28843003828700
    SurabayaIndonesia27293003677900
    MedanIndonesia20593002972700
    PalembangIndonesia14623001580000
    Ujung PandangIndonesia11702001254800
    SemarangIndonesia11347001322300
    BogorIndonesia761300761300
    MalangIndonesia742700921100
    Bandar LampungIndonesia7274001122900
    PadangIndonesia586400808500
    SamarindaIndonesia585900600800
    Pekan BaruIndonesia572100572100
    BanjarmasinIndonesia548900548900
    SurakartaIndonesia533900857300
    DepokIndonesia510600510600
    BalikpapanIndonesia496700496700
    PontianakIndonesia493200493200
    DenpasarIndonesia491500933500
    JambiIndonesia431100431100
    YogyakartaIndonesia417900840400
    ManadoIndonesia395100395100
    MataramIndonesia3308001081400
    CirebonIndonesia319500926100
    KediriIndonesia270900270900
    BengkuluIndonesia270500270500
    AmbonIndonesia262200262200
    Banda AcehIndonesia253700253700
    TasikmalayaIndonesia251300251300
    PekalonganIndonesia249200249200
    TegalIndonesia238100784400
    JemberIndonesia231800231800
    Pematang SiantarIndonesia231400231400
    CilacapIndonesia218400218400
    PurwokertoIndonesia213600213600
    KarawangIndonesia202800202800
    MadiunIndonesia181900181900
    PaluIndonesia180000180000
    SerangIndonesia171200171200
    KendariIndonesia170200170200
    CilegonIndonesia163500163500
    BitungIndonesia161000161000
    CianjurIndonesia159800159800
    BatamIndonesia155500155500
    Palangka RayaIndonesia154600154600
    Jaya PuraIndonesia153400153400
    SukabumiIndonesia152700152700
    PasuruanIndonesia148400148400
    KupangIndonesia148300148300
    ProbolinggoIndonesia146000146000
    GorontaloIndonesia140400140400
    SorongIndonesia140000140000
    TebingtinggiIndonesia139400139400
    PurwakartaIndonesia134100134100
    GarutIndonesia133900133900
    LhokseumaweIndonesia133100133100
    Pangkal PinangIndonesia128800128800
    MagelangIndonesia127200127200
    BlitarIndonesia127100127100
    MartapuraIndonesia126100126100
    TarakanIndonesia122600122600
    Tanjung PinangIndonesia122100122100
    DumaiIndonesia109800109800
    PemalangIndonesia109300109300
    KlatenIndonesia109000109000
    BontangIndonesia108500108500
    SalatigaIndonesia106500106500
    KuninganIndonesia105700105700
    Padang SidempuanIndonesia103400103400
    MojokertoIndonesia102500102500
    SubangIndonesia102100102100
    TernateIndonesia102100102100
    MetroIndonesia101900101900
    CibadakIndonesia101300101300
    KudusIndonesia100500100500


    Indonesia: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use7.75 million (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular11.7 million (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 368,360 km
    paved: 213,648 km
    unpaved: 154,711 km (2002)


    Indonesia: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 69.57 years
    male: 67.13 years
    female: 72.13 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate35.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.1% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and chikungunya are high risks in some locations
    note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds, rare cases could occur among US personnel who have close contact with infected birds or poultry (2005)

    Indonesia : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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