TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Lesotho Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 1.4% or about 44,000 ha of Lesotho is forested, according to FAO. Lesotho had 10,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Lesotho lost an average of 200 ha or 0.50% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Lesotho gained 10.0% of its forest cover, or around 4,000 ha.

Lesotho's forests contain 2 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Lesotho has some 417 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.4% are threatened. Lesotho is home to at least 1591 species of vascular plants, of which 0.1% are endemic. 0.0% of Lesotho is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)111
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)18137
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)642
Total forest carbon (Mt C)241710
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)191919
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Lesotho

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Lesotho: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)3035
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)44
Percent Forest Cover1
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)97
Percent other wooded land3




Lesotho: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3476
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1024


Lesotho: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
40424344
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
n.s.n.s.n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.490.470.46


Lesotho: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
34343434
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.000


Lesotho: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Lesotho: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
68910
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
n.s.n.s.n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
3.172.552.26


Lesotho: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
240007600


Lesotho: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
14086


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Lesotho: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
365---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
110


Lesotho: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
2222
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
53
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Lesotho: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Lesotho: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
--n.s.100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
177122272362100


Lesotho: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
n.s.8---


Lesotho: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.2
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Lesotho: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2008)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2009) Temporarily suspended
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1998) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Lesotho: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
--80101158


Lesotho: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Lesotho: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Lesotho: Environment
    Environment - current issuespopulation pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls, stores, and redirects water to South Africa
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardsperiodic droughts


    Lesotho: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 10.87%
    permanent crops: 0.13%
    other: 89% (2001)
    Natural resourceswater, agricultural and grazing land, diamonds, sand, clay, building stone


    Lesotho: Economy
    Economy - overview:Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho relies on remittances from miners employed in South Africa and customs duties from the Southern Africa Customs Union for the majority of government revenue, but the government has strengthened its tax system to reduce dependency on customs duties. Completion of a major hydropower facility in January 1998 now permits the sale of water to South Africa, also generating royalties for Lesotho. As the number of mineworkers has declined steadily over the past several years, a small manufacturing base has developed based on farm products that support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries and a rapidly growing apparel-assembly sector. The garment industry has grown significantly, mainly due to Lesotho qualifying for the trade benefits contained in the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. The economy is still primarily based on subsistence agriculture, especially livestock, although drought has decreased agricultural activity. The extreme inequality in the distribution of income remains a major drawback. Lesotho has signed an Interim Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF.
    GDP - per capita$3,300 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)2% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscorn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 15.4%, industry: 44.2%, services: 40.4% (2005 est.)
    Industries food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts; construction; tourism
    Economic aid - recipient$41.5 million (2000)
    Debt - external$735 million (2002)
    Population below poverty line (%)49% (1999)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)86% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 35% of the active male wage earners work in South Africa


    Lesotho: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)1,867,035
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.08%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)61.5
    Percent rural (2003)82.1%
    Median age (years)total: 20.19 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3.35 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%,


    Largest Cities in Lesotho

    Cities and urban areas in Lesotho with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    MaseruLesotho169200169200


    Lesotho: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use28,600 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular92,000 (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 5,940 km
    paved: 1,087 km
    unpaved: 4,853 km (1999)


    Lesotho: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 34.47 years
    male: 35.49 years
    female: 33.42 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate84.23 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)28.9% (2003 est.)

    Lesotho : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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