TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Madagascar Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 21.6% or about 12,553,000 ha of Madagascar is forested, according to FAO. Of this 24.2% ( 3,036,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Madagascar had 415,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Madagascar lost an average of 56,950 ha or 0.42% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Madagascar lost 8.3% of its forest cover, or around 1,139,000 ha.

Madagascar's forests contain 1,626 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Madagascar has some 1036 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 72.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 15.1% are threatened. Madagascar is home to at least 9505 species of vascular plants, of which 68.4% are endemic. 2.4% of Madagascar is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)271713
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)1,180893798
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)352261230
Total forest carbon (Mt C)1,5321,1541,028
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)587078
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Madagascar Environmental profile | Madagascar pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Madagascar

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










 Home
 What's New
 About
 Rainforests
   Mission
   Introduction
   Characteristics
   Biodiversity
   The Canopy
   Forest Floor
   Forest Waters
   Indigenous People
   Deforestation
   Consequences
   Saving Rainforests
   Amazon
   Borneo
   Congo
   New Guinea
   Sulawesi
   REDD
   Country Profiles
   Statistics
   Works Cited
   For Kids
   For Teachers
   Photos/Images
   Expert Interviews
   Rainforest News
  Forest data
   Global deforestation
   Tropical deforestation
   By country
   Deforestation charts
   Regional forest data
   Deforestation drivers
 XML Feeds
 Pictures
 Books
 Education
 Newsletter
 Contact






Madagascar: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)58154
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)12553
Percent Forest Cover22
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)3036
Primary Forest, % total forest24
Other wooded land (1000 ha)15688
Percent other wooded land27




Madagascar: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)303624
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)910273
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)4153


Madagascar: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
13692131221283812553
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-57-57-57
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.42-0.44-0.45


Madagascar: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
13461128501254812138
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-61-61-71
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.5-0.45-0.55


Madagascar: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3367321431373036
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-15-15-20
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.46-0.48-0.65


Madagascar: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
231272290415
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
4425
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.651.297.43


Madagascar: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
2613803400


Madagascar: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
9820


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
9208


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
960220
Madagascar: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
2146171--28
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
70645


Madagascar: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
1778169116631626
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
130
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-9-6-7
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Madagascar: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
16100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
000---


Madagascar: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
928155238100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
81551108412812100


Madagascar: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
58---


Madagascar: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-48-
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Madagascar: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1997)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: No (-) -
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1997) Sub-national forest law: No

Madagascar: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
1100-1100-1100-


Madagascar: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Madagascar: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Madagascar: Environment
    Environment - current issuessoil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsperiodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation


    Madagascar: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 5.07%
    permanent crops: 1.03%
    other: 93.91% (2001)
    Natural resourcesgraphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower


    Madagascar: Economy
    Economy - overview:Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank and IMF led policy of privatization and liberalization. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing 80% of the population. Exports of apparel have boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the United States. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel are serious concerns. President RAVALOMANANA has worked aggressively to revive the economy following the 2002 political crisis, which triggered a 12% drop in GDP that year. Poverty reduction and combating corruption will be the centerpieces of economic policy for the next few years.
    GDP - per capita$900 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)6.5% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscoffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 28.7%, industry: 16.5%, services: 54.8% (2005 est.)
    Industries meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
    Economic aid - recipient$354 million (2001)
    Debt - external$4.6 billion (2002)
    Population below poverty line (%)50% (2004 est.)


    Madagascar: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)18,040,341
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)3.03%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)31.0
    Percent rural (2003)73.5%
    Median age (years)total: 17.46 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.66 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran


    Largest Cities in Madagascar

    Cities and urban areas in Madagascar with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    AntananarivoMadagascar8752001359600
    ToamasinaMadagascar169800169800
    AntsirabeMadagascar155300155300
    FianarantsoaMadagascar134600134600
    MahajangaMadagascar131600131600


    Madagascar: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use59,600 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular279,500 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 49,827 km
    paved: 5,780 km
    unpaved: 44,047 km (1999)


    Madagascar: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 56.95 years
    male: 54.57 years
    female: 59.4 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate76.83 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)1.7% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)

    Madagascar : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



    Tropical rainforest information

     World Rainforests
     Rainforest Structure
     Rainforest Biodiversity
     Canopy
     Forest Floor
     Rainforest Waters
     Indigenous People
     Deforestation
     Global Importance


     Rainforest Conservation
     Country Reports update soon
     References
     Deforestation Tables
     The Amazon Rainforest update soon
     The Congo Rainforest update soon
     Deforestation in Brazil
     Rainforest Images




    Google
      Web
    mongabay.com
    Mongabay Rainforests
    Mongabay News
    Mongabay Photos

  • what's new | rainforests home | help support the site | madagascar | search | about | contact

    Copyright Rhett Butler 1994-2006

    "Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site.
    Same for "rainforests" and "rain forests". "Jungle" is generally not used.