TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Malaysia Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 62.3% or about 20,456,000 ha of Malaysia is forested, according to FAO. Of this 18.7% ( 3,820,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Malaysia had 1,807,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Malaysia lost an average of 96,000 ha or 0.43% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Malaysia lost 8.6% of its forest cover, or around 1,920,000 ha.

Malaysia's forests contain 3,212 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Malaysia has some 1671 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 13.9% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 9.3% are threatened. Malaysia is home to at least 15500 species of vascular plants, of which 23.2% are endemic. 4.1% of Malaysia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)302525
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)4,0153,5993,527
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1,060946926
Total forest carbon (Mt C)5,0754,5444,453
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)172179180
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Malaysia Environmental profile | Malaysia pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Malaysia

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Malaysia: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)32855
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)20456
Percent Forest Cover62
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)3820
Primary Forest, % total forest19
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Malaysia: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)382019
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1482972
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)18079


Malaysia: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
22376215912089020456
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-79-140-87
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.36-0.66-0.42


Malaysia: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
20420199321931718649
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-49-49-128
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.2-0.24-0.64


Malaysia: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3820382038203820
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Malaysia: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1956165915731807
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-30-1747
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.63-1.062.81


Malaysia: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
62131001500


Malaysia: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
9820


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
9001000
Malaysia: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
4239207---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Malaysia: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
2822355833623212
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
157
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
74-39-30
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
3.9-0.8-0.8


Malaysia: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
2100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Malaysia: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
484282194626706-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
461338313557-


Malaysia: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
2706-43--


Malaysia: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
7868127
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
7666125
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
222


Malaysia: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1992)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2006) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1984) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Malaysia: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
11000-8400-8600-


Malaysia: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
42412398547---98547-


Malaysia: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Malaysia: Environment
    Environment - current issuesair pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    Natural hazardsflooding, landslides, forest fires


    Malaysia: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 5.48%
    permanent crops: 17.61%
    other: 76.91% (2001)
    Natural resourcestin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite


    Malaysia: Economy
    Economy - overview:Malaysia, a middle-income country, transformed itself from 1971 through the late 1990's from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Growth was almost exclusively driven by exports - particularly of electronics. As a result, Malaysia was hard hit by the global economic downturn and the slump in the information technology (IT) sector in 2001 and 2002. GDP in 2001 grew only 0.5% because of an estimated 11% contraction in exports, but a substantial fiscal stimulus package equal to US $1.9 billion mitigated the worst of the recession, and the economy rebounded in 2002 with a 4.1% increase. The economy grew 4.9% in 2003, notwithstanding a difficult first half, when external pressures from SARS and the Iraq War led to caution in the business community. Growth topped 7% in 2004 and 5% in 2005. Healthy foreign exchange reserves, low inflation, and a small external debt are all strengths that make it unlikely that Malaysia will experience a financial crisis over the near term similar to the one in 1997. The economy remains dependent on continued growth in the US, China, and Japan, top export destinations and key sources of foreign investment.
    GDP - per capita$10,400 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.1% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsPeninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak - rubber, pepper, timber
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 7.2%, industry: 33.3%, services: 59.5% (2005 est.)
    Industries Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
    Population below poverty line (%)8% (1998 est.)
    Debt - external$56.72 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 14.5%, industry 36%, services 49.5% (2000 est.)


    Malaysia: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)23,953,136
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.80%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)72.9
    Percent rural (2003)36.1%
    Median age (years)total: 23.92 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3.07 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, Indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% (2004 est.)


    Largest Cities in Malaysia

    Cities and urban areas in Malaysia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    Kuala LumpurMalaysia14486004060000
    Johor BahruMalaysia722200722200
    IpohMalaysia561700746300
    KuchingMalaysia368000368000
    Kuala TerengganuMalaysia302900302900
    KuantanMalaysia293400293400
    Kota BahruMalaysia290900290900
    SerembanMalaysia265500265500
    GeorgetownMalaysia231800231800
    Kota KinabaluMalaysia216400216400
    SandakanMalaysia212400212400
    TaipingMalaysia208300208300
    Kajang-Sungai ChuaMalaysia201800201800
    Alor SetarMalaysia199100199100
    SibuMalaysia177100177100
    TawauMalaysia168500168500
    KluangMalaysia164600164600
    Sungai PetaniMalaysia141900141900
    MiriMalaysia136600136600
    MelakaMalaysia127400127400
    Bandar PenggaramMalaysia101000101000


    Malaysia: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use4,571,600 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular11,124,100 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 71,814 km
    paved: 55,943 km
    unpaved: 15,871 km (2001)


    Malaysia: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 72.24 years
    male: 69.56 years
    female: 75.11 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate17.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.4% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations (2004)

    Malaysia : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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