TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Mexico Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 33.3% or about 64,802,000 ha of Mexico is forested, according to FAO. Of this 52.9% ( 34,310,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Mexico had 3,203,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Mexico lost an average of 274,450 ha or 0.39% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Mexico lost 7.8% of its forest cover, or around 5,489,000 ha.

Mexico's forests contain 2,043 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Mexico has some 2765 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 34.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 12.3% are threatened. Mexico is home to at least 26071 species of vascular plants, of which 47.9% are endemic. 0.6% of Mexico is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)684939
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)2,2431,7991,566
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)691549473
Total forest carbon (Mt C)2,9342,3482,039
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)434852
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Mexico Environmental profile | Mexico pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Mexico

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Mexico: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)194395
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)64802
Percent Forest Cover33
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)34310
Primary Forest, % total forest53
Other wooded land (1000 ha)20181
Percent other wooded land10




Mexico: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3431053
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)2728942
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)32035


Mexico: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
70291667516557864802
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-354-235-155
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.52-0.35-0.24


Mexico: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
70291.0065693.0063184.0061599.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-460-460.00-409.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.7-0.65-0.62


Mexico: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
39492354693453134310
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-402-188-44
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.07-0.53-0.13


Mexico: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0105823943203
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
106267162
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-17.746.00


Mexico: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
501308200


Mexico: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
42670


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Mexico: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
2870449971873-
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
362


Mexico: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
2186211120762043
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
32
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-8-7-7
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Mexico: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
3892


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
38194-61n.s.


Mexico: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
765376626055100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
451547688100


Mexico: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
6072530662n.s.


Mexico: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Mexico: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2001)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2007) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (2003) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Mexico: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
--273211294012


Mexico: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-890071104262120409991128114524


Mexico: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Mexico: Environment
    Environment - current issuesscarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardstsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts


    Mexico: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 12.99%
    permanent crops: 1.31%
    other: 85.7% (2001)
    Natural resourcespetroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber


    Mexico: Economy
    Economy - overview:Mexico has a free market economy that recently entered the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is one-fourth that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Mexico has 12 free trade agreements with over 40 countries including, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. The Fox administration is cognizant of the need to upgrade infrastructure, modernize the tax system and labor laws, and allow private investment in the energy sector, but has been unable to win the support of the opposition-led Congress. The next government that takes office in December 2006 will confront the same challenges of boosting economic growth, improving Mexico's international competitiveness, and reducing poverty.
    GDP - per capita$10,000 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscorn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 4%, industry: 26.5%, services: 69.5% (2005 est.)
    Industries food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
    Economic aid - recipient$1.166 billion (1995)
    Debt - external$174.3 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)40% (2003 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 18%, industry 24%, services 58% (2003)


    Mexico: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)106,202,903
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.17%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)55.2
    Percent rural (2003)24.5%
    Median age (years)total: 24.93 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.45 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%


    Largest Cities in Mexico

    Cities and urban areas in Mexico with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    Mexico CityMexico858960021027200
    GuadalajaraMexico17976003847800
    EcatepecMexico16886001688600
    NezahualcoyotlMexico14308001430800
    PueblaMexico13087002540900
    MonterreyMexico12369003469000
    TijuanaMexico11829001182900
    Ciudad JuárezMexico11267002006700
    LeonMexico9947001397700
    NaucalpanMexico953800953800
    ZapopanMexico936000936000
    TlalnepantlaMexico821200821200
    GuadalupeMexico703200703200
    MeridaMexico698200875400
    ChihuahuaMexico694400824600
    AcapulcoMexico648400879500
    San Luis PotosíMexico629600936200
    MexicaliMexico618400830800
    AguascalientesMexico594500734500
    HermosilloMexico590000657300
    CuliacanMexico567900765500
    SaltilloMexico554300657900
    MoreliaMexico537000537000
    QueretaroMexico533300825700
    TorreonMexico5232001135500
    TlaquepaqueMexico478500478500
    TolucaMexico427300427300
    DurangoMexico414000414000
    VeracruzMexico404500607100
    CancunMexico402300402300
    Tuxtla GutierrezMexico397000397000
    MatamorosMexico370800780800
    ReynosaMexico367000367000
    CuernavacaMexico352500739200
    VillahermosaMexico344100625700
    XalapaMexico343900343900
    MazatlanMexico340200340200
    TampicoMexico319400775500
    IrapuatoMexico316500316500
    Nuevo LaredoMexico313600534300
    Ciudad ObregonMexico285600285600
    CelayaMexico265900265900
    Ciudad VictoriaMexico263800263800
    TepicMexico261400261400
    OaxacaMexico257300257300
    EnsenadaMexico235800235800
    CoatzacoalcosMexico235600697100
    PachucaMexico228800228800
    UruapanMexico225900225900
    Los MochisMexico211600211600
    MonclovaMexico205200205200
    CampecheMexico204500204500
    TehuacanMexico195000195000
    La PazMexico171800171800
    TapachulaMexico171400171400
    Poza RicaMexico163000163000
    ChetumalMexico155900155900
    NogalesMexico154000154000
    CuautlaMexico145900145900
    SalamancaMexico143500143500
    CordobaMexico140200582000
    San Luis Río ColoradoMexico135300135300
    ChilpancingoMexico135100135100
    Puerto VallartaMexico134100134100
    ColimaMexico133800133800
    Ciudad del CarmenMexico131200131200
    ZamoraMexico127100127100
    Piedras NegrasMexico124300124300
    OrizabaMexico121300121300
    HidalgoMexico111300111300
    NavajoaMexico111000111000
    Ciudad VallesMexico109700109700
    ZacatecasMexico108100108100
    IgualaMexico107500107500
    GuaymasMexico106500106500
    DeliciasMexico106400106400
    San Cristobal de las CasasMexico104200104200


    Mexico: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use15,958,700 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular28.125 million (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 349,038 km
    paved: 116,928 km (including 6,979 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 232,110 km (2003)


    Mexico: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 75.19 years
    male: 72.42 years
    female: 78.1 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate20.91 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.3% (2003 est.)

    Mexico : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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