TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Mozambique Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 49.6% or about 39,022,000 ha of Mozambique is forested, according to FAO. Mozambique had 62,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Mozambique lost an average of 217,800 ha or 0.50% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Mozambique lost 10.0% of its forest cover, or around 4,356,000 ha.

Mozambique's forests contain 1,692 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Mozambique has some 1167 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.5% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.7% are threatened. Mozambique is home to at least 5692 species of vascular plants, of which 3.8% are endemic. 4.2% of Mozambique is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)563526
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)1,6751,124845
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)522348261
Total forest carbon (Mt C)2,1971,4721,106
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)394243
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Mozambique Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Mozambique

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Mozambique: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)78638
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)39022
Percent Forest Cover50
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)14566
Percent other wooded land19




Mozambique: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)38960100
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)62n.s.


Mozambique: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
43378411884007939022
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-219-222-211
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.52-0.54-0.53


Mozambique: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
43340.0041150.0040055.0038960.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-219-219.00-219.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.5-0.51-0.53


Mozambique: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Mozambique: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
38382462
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0-38
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.0-8.7820.90


Mozambique: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
6722110000


Mozambique: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
100n.s.0


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
980200
Mozambique: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
142036--14
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
28720


Mozambique: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
1878178217331692
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
43
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-10-10-8
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Mozambique: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
-100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Mozambique: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
107015111507-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
171041923319233-


Mozambique: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
261----


Mozambique: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Mozambique: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1999)
Sub-national forest policy: -
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (1998) Under revision
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1999) Sub-national forest law: -

Mozambique: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
88-96-128-


Mozambique: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
6489----345-


Mozambique: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Mozambique: Environment
    Environment - current issuesa long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardssevere droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces


    Mozambique: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 5.1%
    permanent crops: 0.3%
    other: 94.6% (2001)
    Natural resourcescoal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite


    Mozambique: Economy
    Economy - overview:At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-03. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's workforce. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the MOZAL aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. In late 2005, and after years of negotiations, the government signed an agreement to gain Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
    GDP - per capita$1,300 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)7% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 24.2%, industry: 41.2%, services: 34.6% (2005 est.)
    Industries food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
    Economic aid - recipient$632.8 million (2001)
    Debt - external$966 million (2002 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)70% (2001 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)


    Mozambique: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)19,406,703
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.48%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)24.8
    Percent rural (2003)64.4%
    Median age (years)total: 18.29 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.7 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%


    Largest Cities in Mozambique

    Cities and urban areas in Mozambique with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    219245MaputoMozambique10881001639300
    847645MatolaMozambique478300478300
    879688BeiraMozambique447600447600
    1055930NampulaMozambique341700341700
    17551717ChimoioMozambique192700192700
    18841854NacalaMozambique178200178200
    19651936QuelimaneMozambique169100169100
    23322315MocubaMozambique140400140400
    27742758TeteMozambique114900114900
    28472831Xai-XaiMozambique112000112000
    28532837GarueMozambique111900111900
    30132998MaxixeMozambique105900105900


    Mozambique: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use83,700 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular428,900 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 30,400 km
    paved: 5,685 km
    unpaved: 24,715 km (1999 est.)


    Mozambique: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 40.32 years
    male: 39.9 years
    female: 40.75 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate130.79 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)12.2% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)

    Mozambique : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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