TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Myanmar Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 48.3% or about 31,773,000 ha of Myanmar is forested, according to FAO. Of this 10.0% ( 3,192,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Myanmar had 988,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Myanmar lost an average of 372,250 ha or 0.95% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Myanmar lost 19.0% of its forest cover, or around 7,445,000 ha.

Myanmar's forests contain 1,654 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Myanmar has some 1709 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 4.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.9% are threatened. Myanmar is home to at least 7000 species of vascular plants, of which 15.3% are endemic. 0.3% of Myanmar is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)494240
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)5,6315,1234,971
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1,5141,3681,326
Total forest carbon (Mt C)7,1466,4916,297
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)146155157
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Myanmar (Burma) Environmental profile | Burma pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Myanmar

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Myanmar: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)65755
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)31773
Percent Forest Cover48
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)3192
Primary Forest, % total forest10
Other wooded land (1000 ha)20113
Percent other wooded land31




Myanmar: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)319210
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)2759387
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)9883


Myanmar: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
39218348683332131773
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-435-309-310
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.17-0.90-0.95


Myanmar: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
38824341723247230785
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-465-465-339
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.2-1.2-0.99


Myanmar: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3192319231923192
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Myanmar: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
394696849988
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
303128
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
5.854.053.08


Myanmar: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
624702700


Myanmar: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
100n.s.0


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
00100


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Myanmar: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
143045--28
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Myanmar: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
2040181417341654
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
52
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-23-16-16
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Myanmar: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
218-


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Myanmar: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
339736043880-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
356873710439180-


Myanmar: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
765812---


Myanmar: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.-


Myanmar: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (-)
Sub-national forest policy: -
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2001) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1902) Sub-national forest law: -

Myanmar: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
----64858-


Myanmar: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
2041------


Myanmar: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Burma: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts


    Burma: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 15.19%
    permanent crops: 0.97%
    other: 83.84% (2001)
    Natural resourcespetroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower


    Burma: Economy
    Economy - overview:Burma is a resource-rich country that suffers from government controls, inefficient economic policies, and abject rural poverty. The junta took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism", but those efforts stalled and some of the liberalization measures were rescinded. Burma has been unable to achieve monetary or fiscal stability, resulting in an economy that suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including inflation, multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese kyat, and a distorted interest rate regime. Most overseas development assistance ceased after the junta began to suppress the democracy movement in 1988 and subsequently ignored the results of the 1990 legislative elections. Economic sanctions against Burma by the United States - including a ban on imports of Burmese products and a ban on provision of financial services by US persons in response to the government of Burma's attack in May 2003 on AUNG SAN SUU KYI and her convoy - further slowed the inflow of foreign exchange. Oil and gas development will drive growth in the next few years. Other areas, however, are struggling. In February 2003, a major banking crisis hit the country's 20 private banks, shutting them down and disrupting the economy. As of December 2005, the largest private banks remained moribund, leaving the private sector with little formal access to credit. Official statistics are inaccurate. Published statistics on foreign trade are greatly understated because of the size of the black market and unofficial border trade - often estimated to be one to two times the size of the official economy. Burma's trade with Thailand, China, and India is rising. Though the Burmese government has good economic relations with its neighbors, a better investment climate and an improved political situation are needed to promote foreign investment, exports, and tourism.
    GDP - per capita$1,800 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)1.5% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 54.6%, industry: 13%, services: 32.4% (2005 est.)
    Industries agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement; natural gas
    Economic aid - recipient$127 million (2001 est.)
    Debt - external$6.967 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)25% (2000 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001 est.)


    Burma: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)42,909,464
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.42%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)65.2
    Median age (years)total: 26.14 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.01 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%


    Largest Cities in Myanmar

    Cities and urban areas in Myanmar with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    YangonMyanmar (Burma)40160004016000
    MandalayMyanmar (Burma)10576001057600
    MawlamyineMyanmar (Burma)367500367500
    BagoMyanmar (Burma)228100228100
    PatheinMyanmar (Burma)219700219700
    MonywaMyanmar (Burma)165500165500
    AkyabMyanmar (Burma)164400164400
    TaunggyiMyanmar (Burma)157100157100
    MeiktilaMyanmar (Burma)154900154900
    MerguiMyanmar (Burma)146500146500
    LashioMyanmar (Burma)128500128500
    PyayMyanmar (Burma)126300126300
    HenzadaMyanmar (Burma)125000125000
    MyingyanMyanmar (Burma)123700123700
    DaweiMyanmar (Burma)115600115600
    PakokkuMyanmar (Burma)113200113200
    ThatonMyanmar (Burma)103200103200
    MaymyoMyanmar (Burma)102400102400


    Burma: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use357,300 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular66,500 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 30,000 km


    Burma: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 60.7 years
    male: 57.8 years
    female: 63.78 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate67.24 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)1.2% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations (2004)

    Myanmar : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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