TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Nepal Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 25.4% or about 3,636,000 ha of Nepal is forested, according to FAO. Of this 14.5% ( 526,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Nepal had 43,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Nepal lost an average of 59,050 ha or 1.23% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Nepal lost 24.5% of its forest cover, or around 1,181,000 ha.

Nepal's forests contain 485 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Nepal has some 1240 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 2.9% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.6% are threatened. Nepal is home to at least 6973 species of vascular plants, of which 4.5% are endemic. 7.6% of Nepal is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)765
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)584481434
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)163135121
Total forest carbon (Mt C)747615556
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)103103103
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Nepal Environmental profile | Nepal pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Nepal

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










 Home
 What's New
 About
 Rainforests
   Mission
   Introduction
   Characteristics
   Biodiversity
   The Canopy
   Forest Floor
   Forest Waters
   Indigenous People
   Deforestation
   Consequences
   Saving Rainforests
   Amazon
   Borneo
   Congo
   New Guinea
   Sulawesi
   REDD
   Country Profiles
   Statistics
   Works Cited
   For Kids
   For Teachers
   Photos/Images
   Expert Interviews
   Rainforest News
  Forest data
   Global deforestation
   Tropical deforestation
   By country
   Deforestation charts
   Regional forest data
   Deforestation drivers
 XML Feeds
 Pictures
 Books
 Education
 Newsletter
 Contact






Nepal: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)14300
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)3636
Percent Forest Cover25
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)526
Primary Forest, % total forest14
Other wooded land (1000 ha)1897
Percent other wooded land13




Nepal: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)52614
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)306784
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)431


Nepal: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
4817390036363636
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-92-530
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2.09-1.390


Nepal: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
4777.03858.03593.03593.0
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-92-92.0-27.0
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.9-1.9-0.7


Nepal: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
391548526526
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
16-40
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
3.43-0.820


Nepal: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
40424343
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
n.s.n.s.0
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.490.470.0


Nepal: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
101214023040


Nepal: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
100n.s.0


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
6601330
Nepal: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
647178---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
6735


Nepal: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
602520485485
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
133
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-8-70
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
0.8n.s.0


Nepal: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Nepal: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
2881152100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
916441100


Nepal: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
34-1--


Nepal: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
145111115
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
13896105
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
71410


Nepal: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1989)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (-) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1993) Sub-national forest law: No

Nepal: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
840039200395453


Nepal: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
8449222653404523026788340


Nepal: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Nepal: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Natural hazardssevere thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons


    Nepal: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 21.68%
    permanent crops: 0.64%
    other: 77.68% (2001)
    Natural resourcesquartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore


    Nepal: Economy
    Economy - overview:Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world with 40% of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over 80% of the population and accounting for 40% of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Security concerns in the wake of the Maoist conflict have led to a decrease in tourism, a key source of foreign exchange. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower and tourism, areas of recent foreign investment interest. Prospects for foreign trade or investment in other sectors will remain poor, however, because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, its landlocked geographic location, its civil strife, and its susceptibility to natural disaster.
    GDP - per capita$1,500 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)2.5% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 40%, industry: 20%, services: 40% (2002 est.)
    Industries tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production
    Economic aid - recipient$424 million (FY00/01)
    Debt - external$2.7 billion (2001)
    Population below poverty line (%)42% (1995-96)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 81%, industry 3%, services 16%


    Nepal: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)27,676,547
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.20%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)202.3
    Percent rural (2003)85.0%
    Median age (years)total: 20.07 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.19 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)


    Largest Cities in Nepal

    Cities and urban areas in Nepal with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    KathmanduNepal6405001229000
    BiratnagarNepal212600212600
    PokharaNepal165800165800
    LalitpurNepal158200158200
    BirganjNepal124800124800
    DharanNepal110400110400


    Nepal: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use371,800 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular50,400 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 13,223 km
    paved: 4,073 km
    unpaved: 9,150 km (1999 est.)


    Nepal: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 59.8 years
    male: 60.09 years
    female: 59.5 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate66.98 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.5% (2001 est.)

    Nepal : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



    Tropical rainforest information

     World Rainforests
     Rainforest Structure
     Rainforest Biodiversity
     Canopy
     Forest Floor
     Rainforest Waters
     Indigenous People
     Deforestation
     Global Importance


     Rainforest Conservation
     Country Reports update soon
     References
     Deforestation Tables
     The Amazon Rainforest update soon
     The Congo Rainforest update soon
     Deforestation in Brazil
     Rainforest Images




    Google
      Web
    mongabay.com
    Mongabay Rainforests
    Mongabay News
    Mongabay Photos

  • what's new | rainforests home | help support the site | madagascar | search | about | contact

    Copyright Rhett Butler 1994-2006

    "Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site.
    Same for "rainforests" and "rain forests". "Jungle" is generally not used.