TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Nigeria Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 9.9% or about 9,041,000 ha of Nigeria is forested, according to FAO. Nigeria had 382,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Nigeria lost an average of 409,650 ha or 2.38% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Nigeria lost 47.5% of its forest cover, or around 8,193,000 ha.

Nigeria's forests contain 1,085 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Nigeria has some 1417 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.5% are threatened. Nigeria is home to at least 4715 species of vascular plants, of which 4.3% are endemic. 3.6% of Nigeria is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)1875
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)827450386
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)245129109
Total forest carbon (Mt C)1,072579495
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)618391
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Nigeria Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Nigeria

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Nigeria: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)91077
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)9041
Percent Forest Cover10
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)4088
Percent other wooded land4




Nigeria: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)865996
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3824


Nigeria: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1723413137110899041
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-410-410-410
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2.68-3.33-4.00


Nigeria: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1698312821107408659
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-416-416-416
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2.5-2.45-3.25


Nigeria: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1556736326n.s.
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-82-82-65
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-7.21-15.03-


Nigeria: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
251316349382
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
777
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.332.011.82


Nigeria: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
2902800043


Nigeria: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
10000


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Nigeria: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
11611280116114
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Nigeria: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
2016155013171085
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
120
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-47-47-46
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Nigeria: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Nigeria: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
93211083110831100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
590956817270427100


Nigeria: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
124456---


Nigeria: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
111112
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
91010
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
112


Nigeria: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2006)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2002) Under revision
National forest law (year): No national forest law (-) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Nigeria: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
107418112009131209


Nigeria: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-40--40


Nigeria: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Nigeria: Environment
    Environment - current issuessoil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; flooding


    Nigeria: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 31.29%
    permanent crops: 2.96%
    other: 65.75% (2001)
    Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land


    Nigeria: Economy
    Economy - overview:Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In the last year the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003 the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. GDP rose strongly in 2005, based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for an historic debt relief deal that by March 2006 should eliminate $30 billion worth of Nigeria's total $36 billion external debt. The deal first requires that Nigeria repay roughly $12 billion in arrears to its bilateral creditors. Nigeria would then be allowed to buyback its remaining debt stock at a discount. The deal commits Nigeria more intensified IMF reviews.
    GDP - per capita$1,000 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.2% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 26.8%, industry: 48.8%, services: 24.4% (2005 est.)
    Industries crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
    Economic aid - recipientIMF $250 million (1998)
    Debt - external$37.49 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)60% (2000 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)


    Nigeria: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)128,771,988
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.37%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)141.4
    Percent rural (2003)53.3%
    Median age (years)total: 18.63 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.53 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%


    Largest Cities in Nigeria

    Cities and urban areas in Nigeria with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    LagosNigeria80292009123200
    KanoNigeria32487003519500
    IbadanNigeria30784003670400
    KadunaNigeria14589001458900
    Port HarcourtNigeria10539001190600
    BeninNigeria10516001051600
    MaiduguriNigeria971700971700
    ZariaNigeria898900898900
    AbaNigeria784500899100
    IlorinNigeria756400756400
    JosNigeria742100742100
    OgbomoshoNigeria726300985600
    OyoNigeria620400620400
    EnuguNigeria593300662800
    AbeokutaNigeria529700698100
    OnitshaNigeria5095001001000
    WarriNigeria500900500900
    SokotoNigeria500500500500
    OkeneNigeria444900444900
    CalabarNigeria431200431200
    OshogboNigeria4210001309900
    KatsinaNigeria387000387000
    AkureNigeria369700369700
    IfeNigeria313400313400
    BauchiNigeria291600291600
    IseyinNigeria286700286700
    MinnaNigeria270600270600
    MakurdiNigeria249000249000
    OwoNigeria243000243000
    AdoNigeria241200523300
    IleshaNigeria233900561200
    GombeNigeria230900230900
    UmuahiaNigeria230800230800
    OndoNigeria225800225800
    DamaturuNigeria223000223000
    JimetaNigeria218400218400
    Ikot EkpeneNigeria209400209400
    GusauNigeria201200201200
    MubiNigeria198700198700
    ShagamuNigeria191500191500
    OwerriNigeria187600187600
    UgepNigeria187000187000
    Ijebu OdeNigeria186700186700
    IseNigeria167100167100
    GbokoNigeria166400166400
    IlaweNigeria160700160700
    IkareNigeria160600160600
    AbujaNigeria159900565100
    BidaNigeria159100159100
    OkpokoNigeria152900152900
    AwkaNigeria152300152300
    SapeleNigeria151000151000
    IlaNigeria150700150700
    ShakiNigeria150300150300
    IjeroNigeria147300147300
    OtukpoNigeria136800136800
    KishiNigeria130800130800
    BugamaNigeria124200124200
    FuntuaNigeria122500122500
    AbakalikiNigeria121700121700
    GbonganNigeria117300117300
    LafiaNigeria115500115500
    IgbohoNigeria115000115000
    AmaigboNigeria111000111000
    GashuaNigeria109600109600
    OffaNigeria105700105700
    JalingoNigeria103600103600
    BamaNigeria102800102800
    UyoNigeria102400102400
    UromiNigeria101400101400
    NsukkaNigeria100700100700
    OkigweNigeria100700100700
    ModakekeNigeria100500100500


    Nigeria: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use853,100 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular3,149,500 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 194,394 km
    paved: 60,068 km (including 1,194 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 134,326 km (1999 est.)


    Nigeria: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 46.74 years
    male: 46.21 years
    female: 47.29 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate98.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)5.4% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever (2004)

    Nigeria : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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