TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Peru Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 53.1% or about 67,992,000 ha of Peru is forested, according to FAO. Of this 88.5% ( 60,178,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Peru had 993,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Peru lost an average of 108,200 ha or 0.15% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Peru lost 3.1% of its forest cover, or around 2,164,000 ha.

Peru's forests contain 8,560 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Peru has some 2937 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 16.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 7.6% are threatened. Peru is home to at least 17144 species of vascular plants, of which 31.2% are endemic. 3.1% of Peru is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)807573
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)9,6669,3059,236
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)2,5862,4802,458
Total forest carbon (Mt C)12,25211,78511,694
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)153158160
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Peru Environmental profile | Peru pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Peru

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Peru: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)128000
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)67992
Percent Forest Cover53
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)60178
Primary Forest, % total forest89
Other wooded land (1000 ha)22132
Percent other wooded land17




Peru: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)6017889
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)682110
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)9931


Peru: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
70156692136874267992
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-94-94-150
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.14-0.14-0.22


Peru: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
69893684986798866999
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-140-140-150
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.2-0.2-0.22


Peru: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
62910621886106560178
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-72-225-177
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.12-0.36-0.29


Peru: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
263715754993
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
45848
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
10.521.075.66


Peru: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
37n.s.27n.s.26010


Peru: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
621820


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
4000060
Peru: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
8159120---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Peru: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
8831871386548560
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
126
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-12-12-19
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Peru: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
12-


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
83----


Peru: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
109016252051-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
658681277243-


Peru: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
3----


Peru: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--13
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-1012
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--n.s.


Peru: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): No (-)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2004) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (2000) Sub-national forest law: No

Peru: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
----53229


Peru: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
6501------


Peru: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Peru: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsearthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity


    Peru: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 2.89%
    permanent crops: 0.4%
    other: 96.71% (2001)
    Natural resourcescopper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas


    Peru: Economy
    Economy - overview:Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4 percent per year during the period 2002-2005, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, the TOLEDO administration remained unpopular in 2005, and unemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth will be driven by the Camisea natural gas megaproject and by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products. Peru is expected to sign a free-trade agreement with the United States in early 2006.
    GDP - per capita$6,000 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.6% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscoffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 8%, industry: 27%, services: 65% (2003 est.)
    Industries mining and refining of minerals and metals, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing, steel, metal fabrication
    Economic aid - recipient$491 million (2002)
    Debt - external$30.18 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)54% (2003 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 9%, industry 18%, services 73% (2001)


    Peru: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)27,925,628
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.36%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)21.8
    Percent rural (2003)26.1%
    Median age (years)total: 24.95 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.56 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%


    Largest Cities in Peru

    Cities and urban areas in Peru with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    LimaPeru76035007603500
    ArequipaPeru733900733900
    TrujilloPeru600900600900
    ChiclayoPeru490400490400
    PiuraPeru359400359400
    IquitosPeru349300349300
    ChimbotePeru298600298600
    HuancayoPeru285600285600
    CuscoPeru282600282600
    PucallpaPeru235500235500
    TacnaPeru229100229100
    IcaPeru186600186600
    SullanaPeru184900184900
    JuliacaPeru157100157100
    HuanucoPeru140500140500
    Chincha AltaPeru127200127200
    AyacuchoPeru111100111100
    TarapotoPeru110000110000
    TalaraPeru103200103200
    CajamarcaPeru102300102300


    Peru: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use1,839,200 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular2,908,800 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 78,230 km
    paved: 10,452 km
    unpaved: 67,778 km (2001)


    Peru: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 69.53 years
    male: 67.77 years
    female: 71.37 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate31.94 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.5% (2003 est.)

    Peru : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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