TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Rwanda Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 17.6% or about 435,000 ha of Rwanda is forested, according to FAO. Of this 1.6% ( 7,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Rwanda had 373,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Rwanda lost an average of 5,850 ha or 1.84% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Rwanda gained 36.8% of its forest cover, or around 117,000 ha.

Rwanda's forests contain 39 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Rwanda has some 999 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.0% are threatened. Rwanda is home to at least 2288 species of vascular plants, of which 1.1% are endemic. 7.7% of Rwanda is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)10.330.27
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)341916
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1055
Total forest carbon (Mt C)442421
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)647376
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Rwanda Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Rwanda

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Rwanda: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)2467
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)435
Percent Forest Cover18
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)7
Primary Forest, % total forest2
Other wooded land (1000 ha)61
Percent other wooded land2




Rwanda: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)72
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)5513
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)37386


Rwanda: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
318344385435
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
3810
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.792.282.47


Rwanda: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
70626262
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1-10
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.1-1.140


Rwanda: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
7777
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Rwanda: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
248282323373
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
3810
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.292.752.92


Rwanda: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
7412001400


Rwanda: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
79210


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
10000


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Rwanda: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
79182--95
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
230


Rwanda: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
35183539
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
91
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-231
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
-6.07.7n.s.


Rwanda: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Rwanda: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
13347256940
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
48236831780190


Rwanda: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
327---


Rwanda: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--1
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--n.s.
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--n.s.


Rwanda: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2004)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: - (-) -
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1988) Sub-national forest law: No

Rwanda: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
----21311


Rwanda: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
359------


Rwanda: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Rwanda: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo


    Rwanda: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 40.54%
    permanent crops: 12.16%
    other: 47.3% (2001)
    Natural resourcesgold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land


    Rwanda: Economy
    Economy - overview:Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and received IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005. Kigali's high defense expenditures have caused tension between the government and international donors and lending agencies. An energy shortage and instability in neighboring states may slow growth in 2006, while the lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continues to handicap export growth.
    GDP - per capita$1,300 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)4.8% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscoffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 37.6%, industry: 22.8%, services: 39.6% (2005 est.)
    Industries cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
    Economic aid - recipient$425 million (2003)
    Debt - external$1.4 billion (2004 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)60% (2001 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 90%


    Rwanda: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)8,440,820
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.43%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)338.3
    Percent rural (2003)81.7%
    Median age (years)total: 18.48 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.49 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%


    Largest Cities in Rwanda

    Cities and urban areas in Rwanda with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    KigaliRwanda365200365200


    Rwanda: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use23,200 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular134,000
    Roadways (km)total: 12,000 km
    paved: 996 km
    unpaved: 11,004 km (1999 est.)


    Rwanda: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 46.96 years
    male: 45.92 years
    female: 48.03 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate91.23 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)5.1% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria (2004)

    Rwanda : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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