TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Sao Tome and Principe Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 28.1% or about 27,000 ha of Sao Tome and Principe is forested, according to FAO. Sao Tome and Principe's forests contain 4 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Sao Tome & Principe has some 150 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 28.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and #VALUE! are threatened. Sao Tome & Principe is home to at least 895 species of vascular plants, of which 15.0% are endemic. 0.0% of Sao Tome & Principe is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Sao Tome and Principe Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Sao Tome and Principe

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Sao Tome and Principe: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)96
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)27
Percent Forest Cover28
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)11
Primary Forest, % total forest41
Other wooded land (1000 ha)29
Percent other wooded land30




Sao Tome and Principe: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1141
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1659
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00


Sao Tome and Principe: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
27272727
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Sao Tome and Principe: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
27272727
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.00.000.00


Sao Tome and Principe: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
11111111
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Sao Tome and Principe: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Sao Tome and Principe: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
-------


Sao Tome and Principe: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
---


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Sao Tome and Principe: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
5167--100
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Sao Tome and Principe: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
4444
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
141
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
000


Sao Tome and Principe: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Sao Tome and Principe: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
101010-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
----


Sao Tome and Principe: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


Sao Tome and Principe: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Sao Tome and Principe: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): - (-)
Sub-national forest policy: -
National forest program (year) - status: - (-) -
National forest law (year): - (-) Sub-national forest law: -

Sao Tome and Principe: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


Sao Tome and Principe: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Sao Tome and Principe: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Sao Tome and Principe: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsNA


    Sao Tome and Principe: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 6.25%
    permanent crops: 48.96%
    other: 44.79% (2001)
    Natural resourcesfish, hydropower


    Sao Tome and Principe: Economy
    Economy - overview:This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence in 1975. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement, but strengthening prices helped boost export earnings in 2003. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of food. Over the years, it has had difficulty servicing its external debt and has relied heavily on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program, and is expected to benefit from an additional round of HIPC debt relief in early 2006, to help bring down the country's $300 million debt burden. In August 2005, Sao Tome signed on to a new 3-year IMF PRGF program worth $4.3 million. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Sao Tome is optimistic about the development of petroleum resources in its territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea that is being jointly developed in a 60-40 split with Nigeria. The first production licenses were sold in 2004, though a dispute over licensing with Nigeria delayed Sao Tome's receipt of more than $20 million in signing bonuses for almost a year. Real GDP growth reached 6% in 2004 and also probably in 2005 as a result of increases in public expenditures and oil-related capital investment.
    GDP - per capita$1,200 (2003 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)6% (2004 est.)
    Agriculture - productscocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 16.7%, industry: 14.8%, services: 68.4% (2005 est.)
    Industries light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber
    Economic aid - recipient$200 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program
    Debt - external$318 million (2002)
    Population below poverty line (%)54% (2004 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing


    Sao Tome and Principe: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)187,410
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)3.16%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)187.2
    Percent rural (2003)62.4%
    Median age (years)total: 16.12 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.71 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)


    [an error occurred while processing this directive]--> Sao Tome and Principe: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use7,000 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular4,800 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 320 km
    paved: 218 km
    unpaved: 102 km (1999 est.)


    Sao Tome and Principe: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 66.99 years
    male: 65.43 years
    female: 68.59 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate43.11 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)NA
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria (2004)

    Sao Tome and Principe : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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