TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Sierra Leone Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 38.1% or about 2,726,000 ha of Sierra Leone is forested, according to FAO. Of this 4.1% ( 113,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Sierra Leone had 15,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Sierra Leone lost an average of 19,600 ha or 0.63% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Sierra Leone lost 12.6% of its forest cover, or around 392,000 ha.

Sierra Leone's forests contain 216 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Sierra Leone has some 938 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.9% are threatened. Sierra Leone is home to at least 2090 species of vascular plants, of which 3.5% are endemic. 2.0% of Sierra Leone is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)754
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)396299267
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)1148676
Total forest carbon (Mt C)510385343
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)778387
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Sierra Leone Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Sierra Leone

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Sierra Leone: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)7162
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)2726
Percent Forest Cover38
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)113
Primary Forest, % total forest4
Other wooded land (1000 ha)189
Percent other wooded land3




Sierra Leone: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1134
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)259995
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)151


Sierra Leone: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3118292228242726
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-20-20-20
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.65-0.68-0.70


Sierra Leone: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3111.002914.002813.002711.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-20-20.00-20.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.6-0.63-0.70


Sierra Leone: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
224157133113
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-7-5-4
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-3.49-3.26-3.21


Sierra Leone: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
781115
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
n.s.11
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.667.235.30


Sierra Leone: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
90700084


Sierra Leone: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
14860


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
00100


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Sierra Leone: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
10940--25
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
315


Sierra Leone: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
247232224216
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
79
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-2-2-2
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Sierra Leone: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
-90


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Sierra Leone: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
152142142100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
538360706242100


Sierra Leone: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-----


Sierra Leone: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-n.s.n.s.
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-n.s.n.s.
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-n.s.n.s.


Sierra Leone: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2004)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: No (-) -
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1988) Sub-national forest law: No

Sierra Leone: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
2101020091958


Sierra Leone: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
6486230467-1090-


Sierra Leone: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Sierra Leone: Environment
    Environment - current issuesrapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Natural hazardsdry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms


    Sierra Leone: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 6.98%
    permanent crops: 0.89%
    other: 92.13% (2001)
    Natural resourcesdiamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite


    Sierra Leone: Economy
    Economy - overview:Sierra Leone is an extremely poor African nation with tremendous inequality in income distribution. While it possesses substantial mineral, agricultural, and fishery resources, its economic and social infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders continue to hamper economic development. About two-thirds of the working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Alluvial diamond mining remains the major source of hard currency earnings, accounting for nearly half of Sierra Leone's exports. The fate of the economy depends upon the maintenance of domestic peace and the continued receipt of substantial aid from abroad, which is essential to offset the severe trade imbalance and supplement government revenues. The IMF has completed a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility program that helped stabilize economic growth and reduce inflation. A recent increase in political stability has led to a revival of economic activity, such as the rehabilitation of bauxite mining.
    GDP - per capita$800 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.5% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 49%, industry: 31%, services: 21% (2001 est.)
    Industries diamonds mining; small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining, small commercial ship repair
    Economic aid - recipient$297.4 million (2003 est.)
    Debt - external$1.61 billion (2003 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)68% (1989 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA


    Sierra Leone: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)6,017,643
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.22%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)84.0
    Percent rural (2003)61.2%
    Median age (years)total: 17.53 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.72 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole (Krio) 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians


    Largest Cities in Sierra Leone

    Cities and urban areas in Sierra Leone with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    FreetownSierra Leone10321001032100
    KoiduSierra Leone111800111800
    MakeniSierra Leone105900105900


    Sierra Leone: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use24,000 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular67,000 (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 11,300 km
    paved: 904 km
    unpaved: 10,396 km (2002)


    Sierra Leone: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 39.87 years
    male: 37.74 years
    female: 42.06 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate143.64 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)7% (2001 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever (2004)

    Sierra Leone : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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