TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Somalia Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 10.8% or about 6,747,000 ha of Somalia is forested, according to FAO. Somalia had 3,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Somalia lost an average of 76,750 ha or 0.93% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Somalia lost 18.5% of its forest cover, or around 1,535,000 ha.

Somalia's forests contain 394 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Somalia has some 1078 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 6.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 2.8% are threatened. Somalia is home to at least 3028 species of vascular plants, of which 16.5% are endemic. 0.0% of Somalia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)000
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)1021
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)310
Total forest carbon (Mt C)1421
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)303434
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Somalia Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Somalia

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Somalia: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)62734
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)6747
Percent Forest Cover11
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Somalia: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)6744100
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)3n.s.


Somalia: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
8282751571316747
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-77-77-77
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.97-1.04-1.10


Somalia: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
8279751271286744
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-77-77-77
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.9-1-1


Somalia: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Somalia: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3333
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Somalia: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
n.s.00010000


Somalia: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
---


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Somalia: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
16925---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Somalia: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
482439415394
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
58
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-4-5-4
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Somalia: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Somalia: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
----
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
--7922-


Somalia: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
-156---


Somalia: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
223
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Somalia: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): - (-)
Sub-national forest policy: -
National forest program (year) - status: - (-) -
National forest law (year): - (-) Sub-national forest law: -

Somalia: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


Somalia: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Somalia: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Somalia: Environment
    Environment - current issuesfamine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
    Natural hazardsrecurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season


    Somalia: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 1.67%
    permanent crops: 0.04%
    other: 98.29% (2001)
    Natural resourcesuranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves


    Somalia: Economy
    Economy - overview:Somalia's economic fortunes are driven by its deep political divisions. The northwestern area has declared its independence as the "Republic of Somaliland"; the northeastern region of Puntland is a semi-autonomous state; and the remaining southern portion is riddled with the struggles of rival factions. Economic life continues, in part because much activity is local and relatively easily protected. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings, but Saudi Arabia's recent ban on Somali livestock, because of Rift Valley Fever concerns, has severely hampered the sector. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock, hides, fish, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and sold as scrap metal. Despite the seeming anarchy, Somalia's service sector has managed to survive and grow. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money exchange services have sprouted throughout the country, handling between $500 million and $1 billion in remittances annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to the newest electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate, and militias provide security. The ongoing civil disturbances and clan rivalries, however, have interfered with any broad-based economic development and international aid arrangements. In 2004 and 2005 Somalia's overdue financial obligations to the IMF continued to grow. Statistics on Somalia's GDP, growth, per capita income, and inflation should be viewed skeptically. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took an estimated 150 lives and caused destruction of properity in coastal areas.
    GDP - per capita$600 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)2.4% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productscattle, sheep, goats; bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 65%, industry: 10%, services: 25% (2000 est.)
    Industries a few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
    Economic aid - recipient$60 million (1999 est.)
    Debt - external$3 billion (2001 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)NA
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry and services 29%


    Somalia: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)8,591,629
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)3.38%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)13.7
    Percent rural (2003)65.2%
    Median age (years)total: 17.59 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)6.84 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)


    Largest Cities in Somalia

    Cities and urban areas in Somalia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    MogadishuSomalia11831001183100
    HargeysaSomalia231000231000
    BerberaSomalia213400213400
    KisimayoSomalia201600201600
    MarkaSomalia173100173100


    Somalia: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use100,000 (2002 est.)
    Telephones - mobile cellular35,000 (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 22,100 km
    paved: 2,608 km
    unpaved: 19,492 km (1999 est.)


    Somalia: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 48.09 years
    male: 46.36 years
    female: 49.87 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate116.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)1% (2001 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever are high risks in some locations
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2004)

    Somalia : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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