TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Spain Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 36.4% or about 18,173,000 ha of Spain is forested, according to FAO. Spain had 2,680,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Spain lost an average of 217,750 ha or 1.58% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Spain gained 31.5% of its forest cover, or around 4,355,000 ha.

Spain's forests contain 422 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Spain has some 746 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 4.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 7.0% are threatened. Spain is home to at least 5050 species of vascular plants, of which 18.6% are endemic. 8.0% of Spain is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Spain

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Spain: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)49919
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)18173
Percent Forest Cover36
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)0
Primary Forest, % total forest0
Other wooded land (1000 ha)9574
Percent other wooded land19




Spain: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)00
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1549385
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)268015


Spain: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
13818169881729318173
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
31761176
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.090.361.0


Spain: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
11780.0014483.0014743.0015493.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
270270.00101.00
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.32.290.70


Spain: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
0000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
---


Spain: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2038250525502680
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
47926
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.090.361.00


Spain: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
20201224600


Spain: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
29665


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
9703


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Spain: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
9125052339096
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
2n.s.


Spain: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
289396400422
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
23
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
1114
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Spain: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
55-


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Spain: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
147941482815827-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
294720451760-


Spain: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
915295141459n.s.


Spain: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--36
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
-3531
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--5


Spain: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1999)
Sub-national forest policy: Yes
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2002) Under revision
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (2003) Sub-national forest law: Yes

Spain: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
922999139131016513


Spain: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-------


Spain: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Spain: Environment
    Environment - current issuespollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    Natural hazardsperiodic droughts


    Spain: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 26.07%
    permanent crops: 9.87%
    other: 64.06% (2001)
    Natural resourcescoal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land


    Spain: Economy
    Economy - overview:The Spanish economy boomed from 1986 to 1990, averaging five percent annual growth. After a European-wide recession in the early 1990s, the Spanish economy resumed moderate growth starting in 1994. Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is 80% that of the four leading West European economies. The center-right government of former President AZNAR successfully worked to gain admission to the first group of countries launching the European single currency (the euro) on 1 January 1999. The AZNAR administration continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of the economy and introduced some tax reforms to that end. Unemployment fell steadily under the AZNAR administration but remains high at 10.1%. Growth of 2.5% in 2003, 2.6% in 2004, and 3.3% in 2005 was satisfactory given the background of a faltering European economy. The socialist president, RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO, has initiated economic and social reforms that are generally popular among the masses of people but that are anathema to religious and other conservative elements. Adjusting to the monetary and other economic policies of an integrated Europe, reducing unemployment, and absorbing widespread social changes will pose challenges to Spain over the next few years.
    GDP - per capita$25,100 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)3.3% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsgrain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 3.4%, industry: 28.7%, services: 67.9% (2005 est.)
    Industries textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
    Population below poverty line (%)NA
    Debt - external$1.249 trillion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 5.3%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 30.1%, services 64.6% (2004 est.)


    Spain: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)40,341,462
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.15%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)80.8
    Percent rural (2003)23.5%
    Median age (years)total: 39.51 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.28 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types


    Largest Cities in Spain

    Cities and urban areas in Spain with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    MadridSpain29051005078100
    BarcelonaSpain14977003871400
    ValenciaSpain7419001406600
    SevillaSpain7045001135600
    ZaragozaSpain607000607000
    MalagaSpain539300748200
    MurciaSpain366300366300
    Las PalmasSpain366000366000
    BilbaoSpain351100879300
    PalmaSpain350700350700
    ValladolidSpain319400319400
    CordobaSpain316100316100
    VigoSpain287800287800
    AlacantSpain283600283600
    GijonSpain268300268300
    GranadaSpain244900244900
    A CorunaSpain241000241000
    Santa Cruz de TenerifeSpain220700220700
    VitoriaSpain218400218400
    OviedoSpain200700200700
    ElxSpain199800199800
    IrunaSpain191900191900
    JerezSpain186000186000
    SantanderSpain184800184800
    CartagenaSpain184700184700
    DonostiaSpain181900181900
    AlmeriaSpain171000171000
    BurgosSpain164400164400
    SalamancaSpain158600158600
    AlbaceteSpain153200153200
    CastelloSpain146700146700
    HuelvaSpain142200142200
    CadizSpain138900138900
    BadajozSpain137000137000
    LeonSpain136500136500
    LogronoSpain130500130500
    San Cristobal de la LagunaSpain130200130200
    TarragonaSpain116200116200
    JaenSpain113200113200
    LleidaSpain112600112600
    MarbellaSpain109500109500
    OurenseSpain109200109200
    AlgecirasSpain106100106100


    Spain: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use17,567,500 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular37,506,700 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 664,852 km
    paved: 658,203 km (including 11,152 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 6,649 km (2001)


    Spain: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 79.52 years
    male: 76.18 years
    female: 83.08 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate4.42 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.7% (2001 est.)

    Spain : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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