TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Sri Lanka Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 28.8% or about 1,860,000 ha of Sri Lanka was forested in 2010, according to FAO. Of this 9.0% ( 167,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Sri Lanka had 185,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Sri Lanka lost an average of 24,500 ha or 1.04% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Sri Lanka lost 20.9% of its forest cover, or around 490,000 ha.

Sri Lanka's forests contain 61 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Sri Lanka has some 751 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 21.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 11.9% are threatened. Sri Lanka is home to at least 3314 species of vascular plants, of which 26.9% are endemic. 9.6% of Sri Lanka is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)433
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)301234203
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)866657
Total forest carbon (Mt C)387300260
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)869499
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Sri Lanka Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Sri Lanka

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Sri Lanka: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)6463
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)1860
Percent Forest Cover29
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)167
Primary Forest, % total forest9
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Sri Lanka: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1679
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)150881
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)18510


Sri Lanka: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2350208219331860
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-27-30-15
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.20-1.47-0.77


Sri Lanka: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2108186117381675
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-25-25-19
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-1.2-1.17-1


Sri Lanka: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
257197167167
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-6-60
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2.62-3.250


Sri Lanka: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
242221195185
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-2-5-2
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.90-2.47-1.05


Sri Lanka: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
913006000


Sri Lanka: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
9370


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
1000000
Sri Lanka: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
3921---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Sri Lanka: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
90746661
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
33
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-2-2-1
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Sri Lanka: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Sri Lanka: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
772766763-
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
858367806476-


Sri Lanka: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
4639---


Sri Lanka: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
355
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
255
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.11


Sri Lanka: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (1995)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (-) -
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1907) Sub-national forest law: No

Sri Lanka: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
241812231910248310


Sri Lanka: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
31133605039261397670139


Sri Lanka: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Sri Lanka: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Natural hazardsoccasional cyclones and tornadoes


    Sri Lanka: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 13.86%
    permanent crops: 15.7%
    other: 70.44% (2001)
    Natural resourceslimestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower


    Sri Lanka: Economy
    Economy - overview:In 1977, Colombo abandoned statist economic policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. Sri Lanka's most dynamic sectors now are food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications, and insurance and banking. In 2003, plantation crops made up only 15% of exports (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments accounted for 63%. GDP grew at an average annual rate of about 5.5% in the 1990s, but 2001 saw the first contraction in the country's history -1.4%, due to a combination of power shortages, severe budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife. Growth recovered to 5% between 2002 and 2005. About 800,000 Sri Lankans work abroad, 90% in the Middle East. They send home about $1 billion a year. The struggle by the Tamil Tigers of the north and east for a largely independent homeland continues to cast a shadow over the economy. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took about 31,000 lives, left more than 6,300 missing and 443,000 displaced, and destroyed an estimated $1.5 billion worth of property.
    GDP - per capita$4,300 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)4.7% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 17.7%, industry: 27.1%, services: 55.2% (2005 est.)
    Industries rubber processing, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, and banking; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco
    Economic aid - recipient$577 million (1998)
    Debt - external$11.59 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)22% (1997 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 38%, industry 17%, services 45% (1998 est.)


    Sri Lanka: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)20,064,776
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.79%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)309.9
    Percent rural (2003)79.0%
    Median age (years)total: 29.44 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.85 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indian Tamil 4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil 3.9%, other 0.5%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional data)


    Largest Cities in Sri Lanka

    Cities and urban areas in Sri Lanka with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    ColomboSri Lanka7849002409000
    JaffnaSri Lanka162000162000
    KandySri Lanka152200152200


    Sri Lanka: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use881,400 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular931,600 (2002)
    Roadways (km)total: 11,650 km
    paved: 11,068 km
    unpaved: 582 km (2002)


    Sri Lanka: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 73.17 years
    male: 70.6 years
    female: 75.86 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate14.35 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

    Sri Lanka : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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