TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Thailand Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 37.1% or about 18,972,000 ha of Thailand is forested, according to FAO. Of this 35.5% ( 6,726,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Thailand had 3,986,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Thailand lost an average of 28,850 ha or 0.15% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Thailand lost 3.0% of its forest cover, or around 577,000 ha.

Thailand's forests contain 880 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Thailand has some 1715 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 5.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.8% are threatened. Thailand is home to at least 11625 species of vascular plants. 12.7% of Thailand is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)281615
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)2,2141,5961,491
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)619436406
Total forest carbon (Mt C)2,8332,0321,897
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)103126130
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Thailand Environmental profile | Thailand pictures

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Thailand

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Thailand: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)51089
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)18972
Percent Forest Cover37
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)6726
Primary Forest, % total forest35
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Thailand: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)672635
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)826144
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)398621


Thailand: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
19549190041889818972
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-55-2115
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.28-0.110.08


Thailand: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
16881158931545414986
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-99-99-91
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.6-0.59-0.57


Thailand: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
6726672667266726
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Thailand: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
2668311134443986
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
4467108
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.552.052.97


Thailand: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
1474710032


Thailand: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
88120


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Thailand: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
78341---
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Thailand: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
908881877880
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
46
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
-3-11
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Thailand: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
21-


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Thailand: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
1764511100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
53467100


Thailand: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
n.s.n.s.---


Thailand: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
---


Thailand: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2007)
Sub-national forest policy: -
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (1985) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1941) Sub-national forest law: -

Thailand: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
8030-2338-2329-


Thailand: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
1137------


Thailand: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Thailand: Environment
    Environment - current issuesair pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Natural hazardsland subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts


    Thailand: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 29.36%
    permanent crops: 6.46%
    other: 64.18% (2001)
    Natural resourcestin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land


    Thailand: Economy
    Economy - overview:With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and pro-investment policies, Thailand appears to have fully recovered from the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis. The country was one of East Asia's best performers in 2002-04. Boosted by increased consumption, high investment spending, and strong export growth the Thai economy grew 6.9% in 2003 and 6.1% in 2004 despite a sluggish global economy. Bangkok has pursued preferential trade agreements with a variety of partners in an effort to boost exports and to maintain high growth. In 2004 Thailand and the United States began negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took 8,500 lives in Thailand and caused massive destruction of property in the southern provinces of Krabi, Phangnga, and Phuket. Growth slowed to 4.6% in 2005. The downturn can be attributed to high oil prices, weaker demand from Western markets, severe drought in rural regions, tsunami-related declines in tourism, and lower consumer confidence. Moreover, the THAKSIN adminitration's expansionist economic policies, including multi-billion-dollar mega-projects in infrastructure and social development, has raised concerns about fiscal discipline and the health of financial institutions. On the positive side, the Thai economy performed well beginning in the third quarter of 2005. Export-oriented manufacturing - in particular automobile production - and farm output are driving these gains. In 2006 the economy should benefit from an influx of investment and stronger private consumption, however, a possible avian flu epidemic could significantly harm economic prospects throughout the region.
    GDP - per capita$8,300 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)4.6% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productsrice, cassava (tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 9.3%, industry: 45.1%, services: 45.6% (2005 est.)
    Industries tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry, electric appliances and components, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, world's second-largest tungsten producer, and third-largest tin producer
    Economic aid - recipient$72 million (2002)
    Debt - external$50.63 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)10% (2004 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 49%, industry 14%, services 37% (2000 est.)


    Thailand: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)65,444,371
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.87%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)127.9
    Percent rural (2003)68.1%
    Median age (years)total: 30.88 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.88 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%


    Largest Cities in Thailand

    Cities and urban areas in Thailand with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    BangkokThailand65131008707900
    Samut PrakanThailand390300390300
    NonthaburiThailand300200300200
    Udon ThaniThailand227200227200
    KoratThailand210600210600
    Hat YaiThailand191200191200
    Chon BuriThailand188200188200
    Chiang MaiThailand172900172900
    LampangThailand152300152300
    Si RachaThailand145600145600
    Khon KaenThailand145300145300
    Nakhon PathomThailand124300124300
    Nakhon Si ThammaratThailand122400122400
    Surat ThaniThailand117100117100
    RayongThailand109800109800
    Ubon RatchathaniThailand109800109800


    Thailand: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use6,617,400 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular26.5 million (2005)
    Roadways (km)total: 57,403 km
    paved: 56,542 km
    unpaved: 861 km (2000 est.)


    Thailand: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 71.95 years
    male: 69.65 years
    female: 74.37 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate20.48 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)1.5% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and plague are high risks in some locations
    animal contact disease: rabies
    water contact disease: leptospirosis
    note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds, rare cases could occur among US personnel who have close contact with infected birds or poultry (2005)

    Thailand : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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