TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Tonga Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 12.5% or about 9,000 ha of Tonga is forested, according to FAO. Of this 44.4% ( 4,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Tonga had 1,000 ha of planted forest. Tonga's forests contain 1 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Tonga has some 46 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 17.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 15.2% are threatened. Tonga is home to at least 463 species of vascular plants, of which 5.4% are endemic. 23.7% of Tonga is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Tonga

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Tonga: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)72
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)9
Percent Forest Cover13
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)4
Primary Forest, % total forest44
Other wooded land (1000 ha)0
Percent other wooded land0




Tonga: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)444
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)444
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)111


Tonga: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
9999
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Tonga: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
8888
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.000


Tonga: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
4444
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Tonga: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1111
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
000


Tonga: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
117820000


Tonga: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
56440


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
8002000
Tonga: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
1156--43
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
0-


Tonga: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
1111
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
114
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
000
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
000


Tonga: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
0-


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Tonga: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
22158
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
50504567


Tonga: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
n.s.2---


Tonga: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.n.s.
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.n.s.
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Tonga: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2008)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2005) Under revision
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1961) Sub-national forest law: No

Tonga: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
503030


Tonga: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
2620121153621657


Tonga: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Tonga: Environment
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardscyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou


    Tonga: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 23.61%
    permanent crops: 43.06%
    other: 33.33% (2001)
    Natural resourcesfish, fertile soil


    Tonga: Economy
    Economy - overview:Tonga, a small, open, South Pacific island economy, has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. Tourism is the second largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overseas to offset its trade deficit. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing increased funds for health and education. Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well-developed social services. High unemployment among the young, a continuing upturn in inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures are major issues facing the government.
    GDP - per capita$2,300 (2002 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)1.5% (2002 est.)
    Agriculture - productssquash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 23%, industry: 13%, services: 64% (2002 est.)
    Industries tourism, fishing
    Economic aid - recipientAustralia $5.5 million, New Zealand $2.3 million (FY01/02)
    Debt - external$63.4 million (2001)
    Population below poverty line (%)NA
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 65% (1997 est.)


    Tonga: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)112,422
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.98%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)156.6
    Percent rural (2003)66.6%
    Median age (years)total: 20.46 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Polynesian, Europeans about 300


    [an error occurred while processing this directive]--> Tonga: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use11,200 (2002)
    Telephones - mobile cellular9,000 (2004)
    Roadways (km)total: 680 km
    paved: 184 km
    unpaved: 496 km (1999 est.)


    Tonga: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 69.53 years
    male: 67.05 years
    female: 72.14 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate12.62 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)NA

    Tonga : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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