TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Turkey Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 14.7% or about 11,334,000 ha of Turkey is forested, according to FAO. Of this 8.6% ( 973,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Turkey had 3,418,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Turkey lost an average of 82,700 ha or 0.85% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Turkey gained 17.1% of its forest cover, or around 1,654,000 ha.

Turkey's forests contain 822 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Turkey has some 737 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 3.5% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 6.2% are threatened. Turkey is home to at least 8650 species of vascular plants, of which 30.9% are endemic. 0.7% of Turkey is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Turkey

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Turkey: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)76963
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)11334
Percent Forest Cover15
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)973
Primary Forest, % total forest9
Other wooded land (1000 ha)10368
Percent other wooded land13




Turkey: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)9739
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)694361
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)341830


Turkey: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
9680101461074011334
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
47119119
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
0.471.141.08


Turkey: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
7902780281207916
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-10-1011
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-0.1-0.130.15


Turkey: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
739897922973
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
16510
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.960.551.08


Turkey: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
1778234426203418
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
5755160
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.802.255.46


Turkey: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
70178n.s.600


Turkey: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
100n.s.n.s.


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
955n.s.


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
9730n.s.n.s.
Turkey: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
1526135100152471
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
919


Turkey: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
686743782822
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
73
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
688
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.n.s.n.s.


Turkey: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
5100


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
17212-111952


Turkey: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
9946115141190572
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
1568011116972287


Turkey: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
99525421251n.s.


Turkey: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
1014843
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
1014842
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
n.s.11


Turkey: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2005)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (2004) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1956) Sub-national forest law: No

Turkey: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
188971113972111595712


Turkey: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
65352543217227974434043260727974


Turkey: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Turkey: Environment
    Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Natural hazardsvery severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van


    Turkey: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 30.93%
    permanent crops: 3.31%
    other: 65.76% (2001)
    Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower


    Turkey: Economy
    Economy - overview:Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2004 still accounted for more than 34% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low. Despite these strong economic gains in 2002-05, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high debt. The public sector fiscal deficit exceeds 6% of GDP - due in large part to high interest payments, which accounted for about 37% of central government spending in 2004. Prior to 2005, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey averaged less than $1 billion annually, but further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost FDI. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion.
    GDP - per capita$7,900 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)5.1% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 11.7%, industry: 29.8%, services: 58.5% (2005 est.)
    Industries textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
    Economic aid - recipientODA, $635.8 million (2002)
    Debt - external$161.8 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)20% (2002)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 35.9%, industry 22.8%, services 41.2% (3rd quarter, 2004)


    Turkey: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)69,660,559
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.09%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)90.4
    Percent rural (2003)33.7%
    Median age (years)total: 27.7 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.94 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)


    Largest Cities in Turkey

    Cities and urban areas in Turkey with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    IstanbulTurkey92164009640500
    AnkaraTurkey33294003436400
    IzmirTurkey23225002378700
    BursaTurkey11900001190000
    AdanaTurkey11620001162000
    GaziantepTurkey795300795300
    KonyaTurkey695500695500
    AntalyaTurkey571300571300
    DiyarbakirTurkey570900570900
    MersinTurkey559400559400
    KayseriTurkey555900555900
    EskisehirTurkey507100507100
    UrfaTurkey458300458300
    MalatyaTurkey446600446600
    SamsunTurkey377500377500
    KahramanmarasTurkey338700338700
    ErzurumTurkey333300333300
    ElazigTurkey279500279500
    DenizliTurkey260700260700
    SivasTurkey259200259200
    VanTurkey253200253200
    BatmanTurkey237300237300
    AdiyamanTurkey237100237100
    KirrikkaleTurkey227000227000
    ManisaTurkey224600224600
    IzmitTurkey221100221100
    TarsusTurkey212200212200
    BalikesirTurkey212000212000
    AdapazariTurkey204500204500
    TrabzonTurkey203700203700
    KutahyaTurkey181100181100
    IskenderunTurkey180400180400
    OsmaniyeTurkey179500179500
    CorumTurkey164100164100
    AntakyaTurkey155100155100
    IspartaTurkey149800149800
    AydinTurkey149200149200
    UsakTurkey138700138700
    CorluTurkey137500137500
    OrduTurkey131300131300
    AlanyaTurkey130900130900
    EdirneTurkey128400128400
    AfyonkarahisarTurkey126600126600
    KiziltepeTurkey125000125000
    SiirtTurkey119500119500
    ViransehirTurkey118700118700
    ZonguldakTurkey118500118500
    KaramanTurkey116200116200
    KarabükTurkey115800115800
    ErzincanTurkey114100114100
    BismilTurkey113100113100
    AksarayTurkey112900112900
    TekirdagTurkey112200112200
    NazilliTurkey111500111500
    TokatTurkey111000111000
    KarsTurkey103800103800
    CeyhanTurkey101600101600
    InegolTurkey101000101000
    BandirmaTurkey100700100700


    Turkey: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use18,916,700 (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular27,887,500 (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 354,421 km
    paved: 147,404 km (including 1,851 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 207,017 km (2002)


    Turkey: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 72.36 years
    male: 69.94 years
    female: 74.91 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate41.04 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)less than 0.1% - note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

    Turkey : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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