TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Deforestation rates tables and charts

Vietnam Forest Information and Data

According to the U.N. FAO, 44.5% or about 13,797,000 ha of Viet Nam is forested, according to FAO. Of this 0.6% ( 80,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Viet Nam has 3,512,000 ha of planted forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2010, Viet Nam gained an average of 221,700 ha or 2.37% per year. In total, between 1990 and 2010, Viet Nam gained 47.4% of its forest cover, or around 4,434,000 ha.

Viet Nam's forests contain 992 million metric tons of carbon in living forest biomass. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Viet Nam has some 1534 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 8.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 7.9% are threatened. Viet Nam is home to at least 10500 species of vascular plants, of which 12.0% are endemic. 3.4% of Viet Nam is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

2011 Update

In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in PNAS with
new carbon stock estimates for global tropical forests.

Forest definition (canopy cover %)10% tree cover25% tree cover30% tree cover
Forest Area (M ha)211413
Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C)1,8541,3881,300
Belowground forest carbon (Mt C)513379354
Total forest carbon (Mt C)2,3661,7661,654
Average Carbon Density (t C/ha)113127130
M=million, t=metric tons; all figures are mean carbon stock values

Vietnam Environmental profile

The following contains data relating to forest cover in Vietnam

Previous version of this profile (2009)

SECTIONS:

Forest Cover | Breakdown of forest types | Change in Forest Cover | Deforestation | Primary forest | Planted forest | Forest designation | Forest ownership | Growing stock | Carbon stock | Disturbances affecting forest land | Removals | Removals Value | Employment | Forest policy | Human resources | Revenue | Agreements | Protected areas | Biodiversity - Wildlife | Biodiversity - Plants | Environment | Land use / Resources | Economy | Population / Demographics | Infrastructure | Health | References | Books










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Viet Nam: Forest Cover, 2010
Total Land Area (1000 square kilometers)31008
Total Forest Area (1000 ha)13797
Percent Forest Cover44
Primary Forest Cover (1000 ha)80
Primary Forest, % total forest1
Other wooded land (1000 ha)1124
Percent other wooded land4




Viet Nam: Breakdown of forest types, 2010
Primary forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)801
Other naturally regenerated forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)1020574
Planted Forest (1000 ha | % of forest area)351225


Viet Nam: Trends in Total (Net) Forest Cover, 1990-2010
TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
9363117251307713797
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
236270144
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
2.282.211.08


Viet Nam: Trends in Natural Forest Cover (Deforestation), 1990-2010
FOREST COVER (excluding planted forests) (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
839696751028310285
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
12812861
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
1.51.520.63


Viet Nam: Trends in Primary or Old Growth Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PRIMARY FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
3841878580
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-20-20-1
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
-6.94-14.59-1.21


Viet Nam: Trends in Planted Forest Cover, 1990-2010
PLANTED FOREST COVER (1000 ha)
1990200020052010
967205027943512
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (1000 ha)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
108149144
ANNUAL CHANGE RATE (percent)
Negative number represents deforestation
1990-20002000-20052005-2010
7.806.394.68


Viet Nam: Primary designated function (percent)
ProductionProtection of soil and waterConservation of biodiversitySocial servicesMultiple useOtherNone or unknown
4737160000


Viet Nam: Forest ownership and management rights 2005 (percent)
OWNERSHIP PATTERN
Public ownershipPrivate ownershipOther
72244


PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
IndividualsBusiness entities and institutionsLocal, indigenous and tribal communities
---


HOLDER OF MANAGEMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC FORESTS
Public administrationIndividualsBusiness entities and InstitutionsCommunitiesOther
-----
Viet Nam: Growing stock in forest
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total
(million m3)
Per hectare
(m3)
Coniferous
(million m3)
Broadleaved
(million m3)
% commercial species
870632284832
GROWING STOCK IN FOREST
Total (million m3)Per hectare (m3)Coniferous (million m3)Broadleaved (million m3)% commercial species
--


Viet Nam: Trends in carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990-2010
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(million metric tons)
1990200020052010
778927960992
CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS
(per hectare in tons)
2000
72
ANNUAL CHANGE
(1 000 t/yr)
1990200020052010
1576
ANNUAL CHANGE PER HECTARE
(t/ha/yr)
1990200020052010
n.s.-1.1n.s.


Viet Nam: Area of forest affected by fire and other disturbances 2005
FOREST FIRE
1000 ha% wild fire (not managed burn)
--


EXCLUDING FOREST FIRE
InsectsDiseasesOther biotic agentsAbiotic factorsTotal (excluding fire)% of 2005 forest area
------


Viet Nam: Trends in removals of wood products 1990-2005
INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
344623762703100
WOODFUEL
Total volume (1 000 m3 over bark)
199020002005percent of which from forest 2005
265342668526240100


Viet Nam: Value of wood and NWFP removals 2005
Value of removals
(million US$)
Value per ha forest
(US$)
Industrial roundwoodWoodfuelNWFPTotal
473116n.s.589n.s.


Viet Nam: Employment in forestry 1990-2005
TOTAL
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--246
IN PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF GOODS-FORESTRY
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
80198239
IN MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS-CONSERVATION
(1000 full-time employees)
199020002005
--7


Viet Nam: Forest policy and legal framework 2008
National forest policy (year): Yes (2003)
Sub-national forest policy: No
National forest program (year) - status: Yes (1987) In implementation
National forest law (year): Specific forest law (1992) Sub-national forest law: No

Viet Nam: Human resources within public forest institutions 2000-2008
200020052008
#% female#% female#% female
------


Viet Nam: Forest revenue and public expenditure on forestry 2005
Forest revenuePublic expenditure (1000 US$)
Domestic fundingExternal fundingTotal
(1000 US$)Operational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer paymentsOperational expenditureTransfer payments
-2869015404604142828690195474


Viet Nam: Status of ratification of international conventions and agreements as of 1 January 2010
  • CbD:
  • UNFCCC:
  • Kyoto Protocol:
  • UNCCD:
  • ITTA:
  • CITeS:
  • Ramsar:
  • World Heritage Convention:
  • NlbI: [an error occurred while processing this directive] Vietnam: Environment
    Environment - current issueslogging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Natural hazardsoccasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta


    Vietnam: Land use / Resources
    Land use (%)arable land: 19.97%
    permanent crops: 5.95%
    other: 74.08% (2001)
    Natural resourcesphosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower


    Vietnam: Economy
    Economy - overview:Vietnam is a densely-populated, developing country that in the last 30 years has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986 to 1997 in moving forward from an extremely low level of development and significantly reducing poverty. Growth averaged around 9% per year from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian financial crisis highlighted the problems in the Vietnamese economy and temporarily allowed opponents of reform to slow progress towards a market-oriented economy. GDP growth of 8.5% in 1997 fell to 6% in 1998 and 5% in 1999. Growth then rose to 7% in 2000-05 even against the background of global recession. Since 2001, however, Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic liberalization and international integration. They have moved to implement the structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. However, equitization of state-owned enterprises and reduction in the proportion of non-performing loans has fallen behind schedule. Vietnam's membership in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and entry into force of the US-Vietnam Bilateral Trade in December 2001 have led to even more rapid changes in Vietnam's trade and economic regime. Vietnam's exports to the US doubled in 2002 and again in 2003. Vietnam became a member of the WTO in 2005. Among other benefits, accession allows Vietnam to take advantage of the phase out of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, which eliminated quotas on textiles and clothing for WTO partners on 1 January 2005. Vietnam is working to promote job creation to keep up with the country's high population growth rate. However, high levels of inflation have prompted Vietnamese authorities to tighten monetary and fiscal policies.
    GDP - per capita$3,000 (2005 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate (%)7.6% (2005 est.)
    Agriculture - productspaddy rice, coffee, fish and seafood, rubber, cotton, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas, poultry
    GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 21%, industry: 40.9%, services: 38.1% (2005 est.)
    Industries food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, coal, steel, paper
    Economic aid - recipient$2.8 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for 2000 (2004)
    Debt - external$19.17 billion (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line (%)28.9% (2002 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 63%, industry and services 37% (2000 est.)


    Vietnam: Population / Demographics
    Population (July 2005)83,535,576
    Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.04%
    Population density (people/sq km) (2005)256.7
    Median age (years)total: 25.51 years
    Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.94 (2005 est.)
    Ethnic groups (%)Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1% (1999 census)


    Largest Cities in Vietnam

    Cities and urban areas in Vietnam with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

    CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
    Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)Vietnam33785005728900
    HanoiVietnam13728002503000
    HaiphongVietnam5721001792400
    DanangVietnam446000446000
    Bien HoaVietnam365500365500
    HueVietnam266800266800
    Nha TrangVietnam265300265300
    Can ThoVietnam248300248300
    Qui NhonVietnam196200196200
    Rach GiaVietnam194900194900
    Nam DinhVietnam188800188800
    Vung TauVietnam184100184100
    Long XuyenVietnam153000153000
    Hong GaiVietnam142800142800
    Phan ThietVietnam141500141500
    Cam RanhVietnam141200141200
    Cam PhaVietnam139700139700
    Buon Me ThuotVietnam133400133400
    Thai NguyenVietnam131900131900
    Da LatVietnam125000125000


    Vietnam: Infrastructure
    Telephones - main lines in use4.402 million (2003)
    Telephones - mobile cellular2.742 million (2003)
    Roadways (km)total: 93,300 km
    paved: 23,418 km
    unpaved: 69,882 km (1999 est.)


    Vietnam: Health
    Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 70.61 years
    male: 67.82 years
    female: 73.6 years (2005 est.)
    Infant mortality rate25.95 deaths/1,000 live births
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.4% (2003 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and plague are high risks in some locations
    animal contact disease: rabies
    water contact disease: leptospirosis
    note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds, rare cases could occur among US personnel who have close contact with infected birds or poultry (2005)

    Vietnam : References & Data Sources
     Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
     Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005 & 2010) and the State of the World's Forests (2009, 2007, 2005, 2003, 2001)
     Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
     Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
     RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
     World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
     The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
     Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
     With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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