11.9% —or about 13,000,000 hectares—of Ethiopia is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Ethiopia lost an average of 140,900 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.93%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 10.4% to 1.03% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Ethiopia lost 14.0% of its forest cover, or around 2,114,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Ethiopia lost 3.6% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Ethiopia has some 1408 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 7.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.6% are threatened. Ethiopia is home to at least 6603 species of vascular plants, of which 15.1% are endemic. 4.9% of Ethiopia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Ethiopia Environmental profile


Ethiopia: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)109,631,000
Total Forest Area (ha)13,000,000
Percent Forest Cover11.86%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)44,650,000

Ethiopia : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Ethiopia: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)12,509,00096.2%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)491,0003.8%
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Ethiopia: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)15,114,000
Forest 2000 (ha)13,705,000
Forest 2005 (ha)13,000,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(140,900)-0.93%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(141,000)-1.03%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(2,114,000)-13.99%
Change in rate (%)10.36%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)44,650,000
Other 2000 (ha)44,650,000
Other 2005 (ha)44,650,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)491,000
Other 2000 (ha)491,000
Other 2005 (ha)491,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)59,273,000
Other 2000 (ha)57,864,000
Other 2005 (ha)57,159,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(140,900)-0.24%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(141,000)-0.24%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(2,114,000)-3.57%
Change in rate (%)2.51%

Ethiopia: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Ethiopia: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)3.8%
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)-
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)96.2%
None of Unknown (%)-

Ethiopia: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Ethiopia: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20050
World Heritage sites, 20047
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land4.9%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land2.75%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20042.25%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 200411.86%

Ethiopia: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species76
endemic species29
threatened species9
total species839
endemic species24
threatened species20
total species288
endemic species34
threatened species35
total species205
endemic species12
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species1408
endemic species99
threatened species65

Ethiopia: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species1,027
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic1000
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened22

Ethiopia: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)396
Below-ground biomass (M t)107
Dead wood (M t)70
Total (M t)573
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)198
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)54
Carbon in dead wood (M t)35
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)2,982
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)108,879
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)111,861
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)39
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)6,557
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$74,552,000
Wood fuel (US$)$641,734,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$36,583,000
Total value (US$)$752,869,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$58
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed-

Ethiopia : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Ethiopia: Environment
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Natural hazardsgeologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Ethiopia: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 10.71%
permanent crops: 0.75%
other: 88.54% (2001)
Natural resourcessmall reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower

Ethiopia: Economy
Economy - overview:Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting for half of GDP, 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $156 million in 2002, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war with Eritrea in 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee production. In November 2001, Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Under Ethiopia's land tenure system, the government owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Drought struck again late in 2002, leading to a 2% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weather patterns late in 2003 helped agricultural and GDP growth recover in 2004-05.
GDP - per capita$800 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)6.5% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 40.1%, industry: 12.7%, services: 47.2% (2005 est.)
Industries food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Economic aid - recipient$308 million (FY00/01)
Debt - external$2.9 billion (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)50% (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, industry and construction 8%, government and services 12% (1985)

Ethiopia: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)73,053,286
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.36%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)65.2
Percent rural (2003)84.4%
Median age (years)total: 17.75 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.33 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Largest Cities in Ethiopia

Cities and urban areas in Ethiopia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
Addis AbabaEthiopia26385002638500
Dire DawaEthiopia208700208700
Bahir DarEthiopia121700121700

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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