STATISTICS: Indonesia


Indonesia

48.9% —or about 88,495,000 hectares—of Indonesia is forested. Of this, 55.0% —or roughly 48,702,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Indonesia lost an average of 1,871,500 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.61%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 19.1% to 1.91% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Indonesia lost 24.1% of its forest cover, or around 28,072,000 hectares. Indonesia lost -21,717,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have decreased 30.8% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Indonesia lost 25.6% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Indonesia has some 3305 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 31.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 9.9% are threatened. Indonesia is home to at least 29375 species of vascular plants, of which 59.6% are endemic. 4.5% of Indonesia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

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Indonesia: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)181,157,000
Total Forest Area (ha)88,495,000
Percent Forest Cover48.85%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)48,702,000
Primary Forest, % total forest55.03%
Primary Forest, % total land26.88%
Other wooded land (ha)-


Indonesia : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%


Indonesia: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)48,702,00055.0%
Modified natural (ha | %)--
Semi-natural (ha | %)36,394,00041.1%
Production plantation (ha | %)3,399,0003.8%
Production plantation (ha | %)--


Indonesia: Change in Forest Cover
TOTAL FOREST COVER
Forest 1990 (ha)116,567,000
Forest 2000 (ha)97,852,000
Forest 2005 (ha)88,495,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(1,871,500)-1.61%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,871,400)-1.91%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(28,072,000)-24.08%
Change in rate (%)19.12%
PRIMARY FOREST COVER
Primary 1990 (ha)70,419,000
Primary 2000 (ha)55,941,000
Primary 2005 (ha)48,702,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(1,447,800)-2.06%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,447,800)-2.59%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(21,717,000)-30.84%
Change in rate (%)25.88%
OTHER WOODED LAND
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
PLANTATIONS
Other 1990 (ha)2,209,000
Other 2000 (ha)3,002,000
Other 2005 (ha)3,399,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)79,3003.59%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)79,4002.64%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)1,190,00053.87%
Change in rate (%)-26.32%
TOTAL DEGRADATION/CONSERVSION
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)114,358,000
Other 2000 (ha)94,850,000
Other 2005 (ha)85,096,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(1,950,800)-1.71%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(1,950,800)-2.06%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(29,262,000)-25.59%
Change in rate (%)20.57%


Indonesia: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)48,702,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)48,702,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)26.88%


Indonesia: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)53.9%
Protection (%)27.5%
Conservation (%)18.6%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)-


Indonesia: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.12%
Insects (ha)0.00%
Diseases (ha)0.00%
Other (ha)0.00%


Indonesia: Protected areas
6
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20052
World Heritage sites, 20046
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land4.5%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land2.98%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20041.54%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20049.13%


Indonesia: Biodiversity - Wildlife
Amphibians
total species285
endemic species143
threatened species33
Birds
total species1604
endemic species443
threatened species121
Mammals
total species667
endemic species216
threatened species146
Reptiles
total species749
endemic species227
threatened species28
Wildlife diversity
total species3305
endemic species1029
threatened species328


Indonesia: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
19.90%
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
26.80%
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species-
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered122
Endangered57
Vulnerable76
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Total29375
Number endemic17500
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened383


Indonesia: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)8,867
Below-ground biomass (M t)2,926
Dead wood (M t)1,297
Total (M t)13,090
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)4,434
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)1,463
Carbon in dead wood (M t)649
Carbon in litter (M t)179
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
1990-2000-542,000
2000-2005-561,200
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
1990-2000-3.33
2000-2005-4.61
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)11,178
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)79
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)11,257
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)n.s.
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$2,159,679,000
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$2,159,679,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$24
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed162,000


Indonesia : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production82,556
Imports0
Exports1
Consumption82,555
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production32,997
Imports180
Exports502
Consumption32,675
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production6,500
Imports144
Exports2,016
Consumption4,628
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production12,635
Imports129
Exports5,997
Consumption6,767
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production5,587
Imports599
Exports2,244
Consumption3,942
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production6,995
Imports262
Exports2,348
Consumption4,909
Indonesia: Environment
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Natural hazardsoccasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires


Indonesia: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 11.32%
permanent crops: 7.23%
other: 81.45% (2001)
Natural resourcespetroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver


Indonesia: Economy
Economy - overview:Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has struggled to overcome the Asian financial crisis, and still grapples with high unemployment, a fragile banking sector, endemic corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a poor investment climate, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Indonesia became a net oil importer in 2004 because of declining production and lack of new exploration investment. The cost of subsidizing domestic fuel placed increasing strain on the budget in 2005, and combined with indecisive monetary policy, contributed to a run on the currency in August, prompting the government to enact a 126% average fuel price hike in October. The resulting inflation and interest rate hikes will dampen growth prospects in 2006. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth. In late December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami took 131,000 lives with another 37,000 missing, left some 570,000 displaced persons, and caused an estimated $4.5 billion in damages and losses. Terrorist incidents in 2005 have slowed tourist arrivals. Indonesia experienced several human cases of avian influenza in late 2005, sparking concerns of a pandemic.
GDP - per capita$3,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5.3% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 15.1%, industry: 44.5%, services: 40.4% (2005 est.)
Industries petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Economic aid - recipient$43 billion
Debt - external$140.6 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)15.2% (2004)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)


Indonesia: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)241,973,879
Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.45%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)132.5
Percent rural (2003)54.4%
Median age (years)total: 26.48 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.44 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%


Largest Cities in Indonesia

Cities and urban areas in Indonesia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
JakartaIndonesia1081040017369200
BandungIndonesia28843003828700
SurabayaIndonesia27293003677900
MedanIndonesia20593002972700
PalembangIndonesia14623001580000
Ujung PandangIndonesia11702001254800
SemarangIndonesia11347001322300
BogorIndonesia761300761300
MalangIndonesia742700921100
Bandar LampungIndonesia7274001122900
PadangIndonesia586400808500
SamarindaIndonesia585900600800
Pekan BaruIndonesia572100572100
BanjarmasinIndonesia548900548900
SurakartaIndonesia533900857300
DepokIndonesia510600510600
BalikpapanIndonesia496700496700
PontianakIndonesia493200493200
DenpasarIndonesia491500933500
JambiIndonesia431100431100
YogyakartaIndonesia417900840400
ManadoIndonesia395100395100
MataramIndonesia3308001081400
CirebonIndonesia319500926100
KediriIndonesia270900270900
BengkuluIndonesia270500270500
AmbonIndonesia262200262200
Banda AcehIndonesia253700253700
TasikmalayaIndonesia251300251300
PekalonganIndonesia249200249200
TegalIndonesia238100784400
JemberIndonesia231800231800
Pematang SiantarIndonesia231400231400
CilacapIndonesia218400218400
PurwokertoIndonesia213600213600
KarawangIndonesia202800202800
MadiunIndonesia181900181900
PaluIndonesia180000180000
SerangIndonesia171200171200
KendariIndonesia170200170200
CilegonIndonesia163500163500
BitungIndonesia161000161000
CianjurIndonesia159800159800
BatamIndonesia155500155500
Palangka RayaIndonesia154600154600
Jaya PuraIndonesia153400153400
SukabumiIndonesia152700152700
PasuruanIndonesia148400148400
KupangIndonesia148300148300
ProbolinggoIndonesia146000146000
GorontaloIndonesia140400140400
SorongIndonesia140000140000
TebingtinggiIndonesia139400139400
PurwakartaIndonesia134100134100
GarutIndonesia133900133900
LhokseumaweIndonesia133100133100
Pangkal PinangIndonesia128800128800
MagelangIndonesia127200127200
BlitarIndonesia127100127100
MartapuraIndonesia126100126100
TarakanIndonesia122600122600
Tanjung PinangIndonesia122100122100
DumaiIndonesia109800109800
PemalangIndonesia109300109300
KlatenIndonesia109000109000
BontangIndonesia108500108500
SalatigaIndonesia106500106500
KuninganIndonesia105700105700
Padang SidempuanIndonesia103400103400
MojokertoIndonesia102500102500
SubangIndonesia102100102100
TernateIndonesia102100102100
MetroIndonesia101900101900
CibadakIndonesia101300101300
KudusIndonesia100500100500




 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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