STATISTICS: Madagascar


22.1% —or about 12,838,000 hectares—of Madagascar is forested. Of this, 80.6% —or roughly 10,347,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Madagascar lost an average of 66,900 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.49%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 41.9% to 0.28% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Madagascar lost 6.2% of its forest cover, or around 854,000 hectares. Madagascar lost -156,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have decreased 1.5% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Madagascar lost 14.3% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Madagascar has some 1036 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 72.1% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 15.1% are threatened. Madagascar is home to at least 9505 species of vascular plants, of which 68.4% are endemic. 2.4% of Madagascar is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Madagascar Environmental profile | Madagascar pictures


Madagascar: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)58,154,000
Total Forest Area (ha)12,838,000
Percent Forest Cover22.08%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)10,347,000
Primary Forest, % total forest80.60%
Primary Forest, % total land17.79%
Other wooded land (ha)17,054,000

Madagascar : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Madagascar: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)10,347,00080.6%
Modified natural (ha | %)2,198,00017.1%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)234,0001.8%
Production plantation (ha | %)59,0000.5%

Madagascar: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)13,692,000
Forest 2000 (ha)13,023,000
Forest 2005 (ha)12,838,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(66,900)-0.49%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(37,000)-0.28%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(854,000)-6.24%
Change in rate (%)-41.85%
Primary 1990 (ha)10,503,000
Primary 2000 (ha)10,381,000
Primary 2005 (ha)10,347,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(12,200)-0.12%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(6,800)-0.07%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(156,000)-1.49%
Change in rate (%)-43.61%
Other 1990 (ha)21,148,000
Other 2000 (ha)18,453,000
Other 2005 (ha)17,054,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(269,500)-1.27%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(279,800)-1.52%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(4,094,000)-19.36%
Change in rate (%)18.98%
Other 1990 (ha)293,000
Other 2000 (ha)293,000
Other 2005 (ha)293,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)34,547,000
Other 2000 (ha)31,183,000
Other 2005 (ha)29,599,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(336,400)-0.97%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(316,800)-1.02%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(4,948,000)-14.32%
Change in rate (%)4.33%

Madagascar: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)10,347,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)10,347,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)17.79%

Madagascar: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)98.0%
Private (%)2.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)26.3%
Protection (%)1.4%
Conservation (%)39.4%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)32.9%
None of Unknown (%)-

Madagascar: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.25%
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Madagascar: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20053
World Heritage sites, 20042
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land2.4%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land1.88%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.51%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.72%

Madagascar: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species226
endemic species202
threatened species55
total species262
endemic species111
threatened species34
total species165
endemic species102
threatened species49
total species383
endemic species332
threatened species18
Wildlife diversity
total species1036
endemic species747
threatened species156

Madagascar: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species5,000
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered34
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic6500
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened276

Madagascar: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)4,778
Below-ground biomass (M t)1,481
Dead wood (M t)382
Total (M t)6,641
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)2,389
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)741
Carbon in dead wood (M t)191
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)598
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)6,433
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)7,031
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)n.s.
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$66,976,000
Wood fuel (US$)$8,363,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$75,339,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$6
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed47,000

Madagascar : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Madagascar: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsperiodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation

Madagascar: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 5.07%
permanent crops: 1.03%
other: 93.91% (2001)
Natural resourcesgraphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower

Madagascar: Economy
Economy - overview:Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank and IMF led policy of privatization and liberalization. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing 80% of the population. Exports of apparel have boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the United States. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel are serious concerns. President RAVALOMANANA has worked aggressively to revive the economy following the 2002 political crisis, which triggered a 12% drop in GDP that year. Poverty reduction and combating corruption will be the centerpieces of economic policy for the next few years.
GDP - per capita$900 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)6.5% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 28.7%, industry: 16.5%, services: 54.8% (2005 est.)
Industries meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Economic aid - recipient$354 million (2001)
Debt - external$4.6 billion (2002)
Population below poverty line (%)50% (2004 est.)

Madagascar: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)18,040,341
Population growth rate (%) (2005)3.03%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)31.0
Percent rural (2003)73.5%
Median age (years)total: 17.46 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.66 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Largest Cities in Madagascar

Cities and urban areas in Madagascar with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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