TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Types of Forest
Golden ToadConsidered to be one of the most spectacularly colored toads on Earth with its brilliant yellow-orange coloring, the Golden toad is believed to be limited to only a single mountain in Costa Rica, Monteverde. Although always rare, for a few weeks in April every year, hundreds on these brilliant toads gathered in pools in a breeding orgy. However, the toad population dropped sharply since its discovery in 1967 from several thousand gathered in 1987 to just 10 in 1988, none of which were breeding. In 1989 only a single male toad, seeking a mate, was observed. This individual may have been the last Golden toad on Earth; no golden toads have been seen since. The disappearance of the golden toad is of particular significance since its habitat is in a national preserve.
The mechanism triggering the disappearance of the Golden Toad and the decline in frog and toad populations worldwide is unknown. It is speculated that global climate change or increased UV penetration may be responsible. Recent American studies show that increased UV radiation have a significant effect on the development of amphibians. In 1997 and 1998, researchers found evidence that a fungus-like microbe (chytrids) may be partly responsible for the demise of amphibian populations. UV-radiation, pollution, and climate change may have weakened the immune system leaving amphibians vulnerable to infection from the usually harmless microbes.
Research in early 2000 indicated that a similar die-off among amphibians caused by chytrid skin disease may have occurred in the late 1970s
- Conservation scientists want $404 million to save disappearing amphibians September 20, 2005
Yesterday conservation scientists proposed a $404 million effort to preserve declining global amphibian populations. The strategy would call for funding from governments, private institutions and individual donors to finance long-term research, protect critical habitats, reduce the trade in amphibians for food and pets, and establish captive breeding programs.
- Toad on brink of extinction, scientists race to study amphibian for bioactive compounds June 29, 2005
Under the bright florescent lights of the reptile house in the Bronx Zoo of New York, a colorful exotic toad makes its final stand. Once gathering by the thousands at the waterfalls of the Kihansi Gorge of Tanzania, the population of the Kihansi Spray Toad now stands at less than 200 individuals. The hasty construction of a desperately needed dam, built with good intentions by the World Bank, has relegated this species to the edge of existence.
- How to save disappearing amphibians subject of meeting this weekend September 14, 2005
Scientists are meeting this weekend to discuss strategies for addressing the global decline of amphibians. Earlier this year, the Global Amphibian Assessment, a survey of the planet's amphibian species, found that nearly a third (32%) of the world's amphibian species are threatened and 129 species have gone extinct since 1980.
Continued: Structure of the tropical rainforest