Quantcast
Mongabay.com is considered a leading source of information on tropical forests by some of the world's top ecologists and conservationists. TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: Saving What Remains

The WWF Global 200
from Olson and Dinerstein 1998



Global 200 Eco-regions organized by terrestrial, freshwater, or marine realm, major habitat type, and biogeographic realm. The conservation status of terrestrial eco-regions is noted as follows: CE for critical or endangered, V for vulnerable, and RS for relatively stable or intact. We anticipate that there will be some minor modification of the Global 200 list in the future as new information becomes available and ongoing analyses are finalized.

TERRESTRIAL ECO-REGIONS
TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL MOIST BROADLEAF FORESTS
Neotropical
1. Brazilian Atlantic Forests - Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina CE
2. Northern Andean Montane Forests - Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru CE
3. Andean Yungas - Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru V
4. Coastal Venezuela Montane Forests - Venezuela CE
5. Greater Antillean Moist Forests - Haiti, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica,
Puerto Rico CE
6. Chocó-Darién Moist Forests - Colombia, Panama, Ecuador V
7. Varzea Flooded Forests - Peru, Brazil, Venezuela CE
8. Talamancan & Isthmian Pacific Forests - Costa Rica, Panama V
9. Napo Moist Forests - Ecuador, Colombia, Peru RS
10. Rio Negro-Juruá Moist Forests - Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela RS
11. Southwestern Amazonian Moist Forests - Peru, Brazil, Bolivia RS
12. Guayanan Forests - Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana RS
Afrotropical
13. Madagascar Moist Forests - Madagascar CE
14. Guinean Moist Forests - Ghana, Guinea, C^te d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo CE
15. Eastern Arc Montane Forests - Tanzania, Kenya CE
16. East African Coastal Forests - Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia CE
17. Albertine Rift Highland Forests - D.R. Congo, Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania CE
18. East African Highland Forests - Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda CE
19. Seychelles & Mascarene Islands Forests (e.g., Mauritius, Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion, Rodrigues) CE
20. Gulf of Guinea Islands Forests - São Tomé & Príncipe, Equatorial Guinea CE
21. Macaronesian Forests (Azores, Madeira, Canary, Cape Verde Islands) CE
22. Congolian Coastal Forests - Cameroon, Gabon, R. Congo, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Benin CE
23. Western Congo Basin Forests - Central African Republic, Cameroon, R. Congo, D.R. Congo,
Equatorial Guinea RS
24. Northeastern Congo Basin Forests - D.R. Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan, Uganda RS
25. Southern Congo Basin Forests - D.R. Congo, R. Congo, Angola RS
Indo-Malayan
26. Annamite Range Moist Forests - Laos, Vietnam, Thailand V
27. Western Ghats Moist Forests - India CE
28. Sri Lankan Moist Forests - Sri Lanka CE
29. Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim Moist Forests - Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia RS
30. Peninsular Malaysian Lowland & Montane Forests - Malaysia, Thailand CE
31. Sumatran-Nicobar Islands Lowland Forests - Indonesia, India CE
32. Sumatran Montane Forests - Indonesia V
33. Central Borneo Montane Forests - Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei RS
34. Northern Borneo-Palawan Moist Forests - Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Brunei CE
35. Philippines Moist Forests - Philippines CE
36. Sulawesi Moist Forests - Indonesia RS
37. Moluccas Moist Forests - Indonesia RS
38. Northern Indochina Subtropical Moist Forests - Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, China V
39. Southeast China Subtropical Forests - China CE
40. Northeastern India & Myanmar Hill Forests - India, Myanmar, Bangladesh RS
41. Andaman Islands Forests - India V
42. Taiwan Montane Forests - Taiwan V
43. Hainan Island Forests - China CE
44. Nansei Shoto Archipelago Forests - Japan CE
Australasia
45. New Caledonia Moist Forests - New Caledonia, France CE
46. New Zealand Tropical Forests - New Zealand CE
47. Queensland Tropical Forests - Australia V
48. New Guinea Montane Forests - Papua New Guinea, Indonesia RS
49. New Guinea Lowland Forests - Papua New Guinea, Indonesia RS
50. New Guinea Outer Islands/Solomons Moist Forests - Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands RS
51. Lord Howe & Norfolk Island Forests - Australia CE
Oceania
52. Hawai'i Moist Forests - United States CE
53. South Pacific Islands Forests - Fiji, Tonga, American Samoa, Samoa Isisifo CE
TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL DRY & MONSOON BROADLEAF FORESTS
Neotropical
54. Bolivian Lowland Dry Forests - Bolivia, Brazil CE
55. Tumbesian & North Inter-Andean Valleys Dry Forests - Ecuador, Peru, Colombia CE
56. Southern Mexican Dry Forests - Mexico CE
Afrotropical
57. Madagascar Dry Forests - Madagascar CE
58. Maputaland-Pondoland Dry Forests - South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique CE
Indo-Malayan
59. Eastern Indochina Dry & Monsoon Forests - Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia V
60. Lesser Sundas Dry & Monsoon Forests - Indonesia V
61. Eastern Indian Monsoon Forests - India V
Australasia
62. New Caledonia Dry Forests - New Caledonia, France CE
Oceania
63. Hawai'i Dry Forests - United States CE
TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL CONIFER FORESTS
Neotropical
64. Mexican Pine-Oak Forests - Mexico, United States CE
65. Greater Antillean Pine Forests - Haiti, Cuba, Dominican Republic CE
TEMPERATE CONIFER & BROADLEAF FORESTS
Nearctic
66. Klamath-Siskiyou Coniferous Forests - United States CE
67. Appalachian & Mixed Mesophytic Forests - United States CE
68. Pacific Temperate Rainforests - United States, Canada CE
Sierra Nevada Conifer Forests - United States CE
Southeastern Conifer & Broadleaf Forests - United States CE
71. Valdivian Temperate Rainforests - Chile, Argentina
Palearctic
72. V
73. RS
74. Armenia V
75. Middle Asian Mountains Temperate Forests & Steppe - Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakstan, Tajikista China, Iran V
76. Western Himalayan Temperate Forests - Pakistan, India, Nepal CE
77. Southern European Montane Forests - Bulgaria, Greece, Spain, Italy,
Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Czech
Ukraine CE
78. Central China Temperate Forests - China
79. Eastern Himalayan Broadleaf & Conifer Forests - Bhutan, India, Nepal, Myanmar, China
Australasia
80. Temperate Forests - Australia V
81. Tasmanian Temperate Rainforests - Australia CE
82. South Island Temperate Rainforests - New Zealand RS
Nearctic
83. RS
84. RS
Palearctic
85. Central & Eastern Siberian Boreal Forests & Taiga - Russia RS
86. Ural Mountains Boreal Forests & Taiga - Russia RS
87. Kamchatka Boreal Taiga & Grasslands RS
ARCTIC TUNDRA
88. Alas V
89. RS
90. RS
91. RS
92. Taiga- Norway, Sweden, Finland V
TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS, SAVANNAS, & SHRUBLANDS
93. Patagonian Steppe
Nearctic
94. CE
Palearctic
95. Eastern Himalayan Alpine Meadows - Bhutan, Nepal, India, Myanmar, China RS
96. Tibetan Plateau Steppe - China, India RS
97. Daurian Steppe - Mongolia, Russia, China RS
TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL GRASSLANDS, SAVANNAS, & SHRUBLANDS
Neotropical
98. Llanos Savannas - Venezuela, Colombia V
99. Cerrado Woodlands & Savannas - Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay V
100. Beni Savannas - Bolivia V
Afrotropical
101. Angolan Escarpment Woodlands - Angola CE
102. Zambezian Woodlands & Savannas - Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, D.R. Congo, Burundi V
103. Sudanian Savannas - Central African Republic, Chad, Uganda, Ethiopia, D.R. Congo, Cameroon, Sudan, Nigeria, Eritrea V
104. East African Acacia Savannas - Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda V
Indo-Malayan
105. Terai-Duar Savannas & Grasslands - Nepal, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh CE
Palearctic
106. Arabian Fog Woodlands & Shrublands - United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia V
107. Red Sea Fog Woodlands - Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea CE
Australasia
108. Northern Australia & Trans-Fly Savannas - Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia RS
FLOODED GRASSLANDS & SAVANNAS
Neotropical
109. Pantanal Flooded Savannas - Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay V
110. Everglades Flooded Grasslands - United States CE
Afrotropical
111. Saheliann Flooded Savannas - Mali, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Mauritania V
112. Zambezian Flooded Savannas - Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique CE
113. Sudd Flooded Grasslands & Savannas - Sudan, Ethiopia V
TROPICAL MONTANE GRASSLANDS & SAVANNAS
Neotropical
114. North Andean Paramo - Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru V
Afrotropical
115. East African Moorlands - Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, D.R. Congo, Rwanda RS
116. Ethiopian Highlands - Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan CE
117. Zambezian Montane Savannas & Woodlands - Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania CE
118. South African Montane Grasslands & Shrublands - South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland CE
Indo-Malayan
119. Mt. Kinabalu Montane and Alpine Scrub & Forest - Malaysia RS
Australasia
120. Maoke Range Alpine Heathlands - Indonesia RS
DESERTS & XERIC SHRUBLANDS
Neotropical
121. Sonoran & Baja Deserts - Mexico, United States V
122. Chihuahuan & Tehuacán Deserts - Mexico, United States V
123. Galápagos Islands Scrubs - Ecuador V
124. Atacama Desert - Chile CE
Afrotropical
125. CE
126. V
127. CE
128. V
129. V
Palearctic
130. Central Asian Deserts - Turkmenistan, Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan CE
131. Australian Sandy Deserts & Central Ranges - Australia
MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBLANDS & WOODLANDS
Neotropical
132. Chilean Matorral - Chile CE
133. California Chaparral & Woodlands - United States, Mexico CE
134. Fynbos - South Africa
Palearctic
135. Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Monaco, Greece, Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Turkey, Libya, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Morocco, Al Malta, Gibraltar, Cyprus, Egypt CE
136. Southwest Australian Shrublands & Woodlands - Australia
FRESHWATER ECO-REGIONS
SMALL RIVERS & STREAMS
137. Mississippi Piedmont Rivers & Streams - United States
138. Southeastern Rivers & Streams - United States
139. Northwest Coastal Rivers & Streams - United States
140.
Neotropical
141. Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia
142. Greater Antillean Streams - Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic
143. Streams - Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia
144. Plate River - Brazil, Paraguay
Afrotropical
145 Madagascar Freshwater Ecosystems - Madagascar
146. Gulf of Guinea Rivers & Crater Lakes - Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Ni ,
147. R. Congo, , Central African Republic, Ghana
148. Congo Basin Piedmont Rivers & Streams - D.R. Congo Angola, Zambia,
Republic
Indo-Malayan
149. Sri Lankan Rivers & Streams - Sri Lanka
150. Sundaland Rivers & Swamps - Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei
151. Western Ghats Rivers & Streams - India
151. Russian Far East Rivers & Wetlands - Russia, China, Mongolia
Australasia
152. New Guinea Rivers & Streams - Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
153. New Caledonia Rivers & Streams - New Caledonia, France
154. Eastern Australian Rivers & Streams - Australia
LARGE RIVERS
Nearctic
155. Colorado River - United States, Mexico
Neotropical
156. Varzea & Igapó Freshwater Ecosystems - Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela
157. Brazilian Shield Amazonian Rivers & Streams - Brazil, Bolivia
Afrotropical
158. Congo River - D.R. Congo, R. Congo, Angola
Indo-Malayan
159. Mekong & Salween Rivers - Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, China
160. Yangtze River & Lakes - China
LAKE & CLOSED BASIN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS
Nearctic
161. Great Basin Lakes & Springs - United States
Neotropical
162. Chihuahuan Rivers & Springs - Mexico, United States
163. Mexican Highland Lakes - Mexico
164. High Andean Lakes - Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Peru
Afrotropical
165. Rift Valley Lakes - D.R. Congo, Uganda, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Malawi,
Mozambique, Burundi, Zambia
Palearctic
166. Lake Baikal - Russia
167. Yunnan Lakes & Streams - China
168. Lake Biwa - Japan
Indo-Malayan
169. Palawan & Mindanao Streams & Lakes (Lake Lanao) - Philippines
170. Lake Inle - Myanmar
171. Central Sulawesi Lakes - Indonesia
Australasia
172. Lakes Kutubu & Sentani - Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
MARINE ECO-REGIONS
LARGE DELTAS, MANGROVES, & ESTUARIES
Nearctic
173. Chesapeake Bay & Delaware Bay - United States
Neotropical
174. Central American Mangroves - Belize, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Panama,
Guatémala, Costa Rica
175. Panama Bight Mangroves - Ecuador, Panama, Colombia
176. Orinoco-Amazon Mangroves & Coastal Swamps - Venezuela, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana,
Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil
177. Mexican Mangroves - Mexico
Afrotropical
178. Senegal & Gambia River Mangroves & Wetlands - Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau
179. Guinean-Congolian Coast Mangroves - Nigeria, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, Ghana, R. Congo, C^te
d'Ivoire, Liberia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, São Tomé & Príncipe, D.R. Congo, Sierra Leone,
Angola
180. East African Mangroves - Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, Mozambique
Palearctic
181. Volga River Delta - Russia, Kazakstan
182. Mesopotamian Delta & Marshes - Iraq, Iran, Kuwait
183. Danube River Delta - Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia
184. Lena River Delta - Russia
Indo-Malayan
185. Mekong River Delta Mangroves - Vietnam, Cambodia
186. Sundarbans Mangroves - India, Bangladesh
187. Sundaland & Eastern Indonesian Archipelago Mangroves - Indonesia
188. Indus River Delta & Rann of Kutch - Pakistan, India
Australasia
189. New Guinea Mangroves - Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
CORAL REEF & ASSOCIATED MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
Western Atlantic
190. Mesoamerican Reef - Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico
191. Southern Caribbean Sea - Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad & Tobago, Netherlands Antilles
192. Greater Antilles & Bahamian Marine Ecosystems - Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cayman Islands, Bahamas, United States, Turks & Caicos
Western Indian Ocean
193. East African Marine Ecosystems - Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Somalia
194. Western Madagascar Marine Ecosystems - Madagascar
195. Red Sea Marine Ecosystems - Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan
196. Agulhas Current Marine Ecosystems - Mozambique, South Africa
Northern Indian Ocean
197. Arabian Sea & Persian Gulf - Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Iran, Pakistan, Yemen
198. Maldives, Lakshadweep, & Chagos Marine Ecosystems - Maldives, India, United Kingdom
199. Andaman & Nicobar Islands Marine Ecosystems - India
Eastern Indian Ocean
200. Western Australian Marine Ecosystems - Australia
Western Pacific Ocean
201. Isthmus of Kra Marine Ecosystems - Thailand, Malaysia
202. Nansei Shoto Marine Ecosystems - Japan
203. Sulu Sea - Philippines, Malaysia
204. Sulawesi Sea - Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia
205. Banda-Flores Seas Marine Ecosystems - Indonesia
206. Northern New Guinea & Coral Sea Marine Ecosystems - Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Solomon Islands
207. Micronesian Marine Ecosystems - Palau, Federated States of Micronesia
Eastern Pacific Ocean
208. Panama Bight Marine Ecosystems - Panama, Colombia, Ecuador
Southern Pacific Ocean
209. South Pacific Marine Ecosystems (Vanuatu, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu)
210. Great Barrier Reef - Australia
211. Eastern Polynesian Island Marine Ecosystems (particularly, Hawai'i, Marquesas, Easter Island, Societies & Tuamotus)
212. Lord Howe Island & Norfolk Island Marine Ecosystems - Australia
COASTAL MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
Northern Atlantic Ocean
213. Icelandic & Celtic Marine Ecosystems - Iceland, France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark
214. Grand Banks - Canada, United States
215. Wadden Sea - Denmark, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands
Western Atlantic Ocean
216. Northeast Brazilian Coast Marine Ecosystems - Brazil
Eastern Atlantic Ocean
217. Gulf of Guinea Marine Ecosystems - Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, R. Congo, D.R. Congo, Angola,
Cameroon, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, São Tomé & Príncipe
218. Western Guinea Current Marine Ecosystems - Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Cape Verde, Liberia, Mauritania
Southern Atlantic Ocean
219. Benguela Current - Namibia, South Africa, Angola
220. Southwest Atlantic Coast Marine Ecosystems - Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil
Mediterranean Sea
221. Mediterranean Sea
Western Pacific Ocean
222. Yellow Sea & East China Sea - China, North Korea, South Korea, Japan
Eastern Pacific Ocean
223. Californian Current - United States, Canada, Mexico
224. Sea of Cortez - Mexico
225. Peru Current - Peru, Chile
226. Galápagos Islands Marine Ecosystems - Ecuador
227. Magellanic Marine Ecosystems - Chile, Argentina
Southern Pacific Ocean
228. South Temperate Australian Marine Ecosystems - Australia
POLAR & SUBPOLAR MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
Antarctic Seas
229. Antarctic Peninsula & Weddell Sea
230. New Zealand Marine Ecosystems - New Zealand
Arctic Ocean & Seas
231. Bering & Beaufort Seas - Russia, United States, Canada
232. Sea of Okhotsk & Northern Sea of Japan - Russia, Japan
233. Svalbard/Franz Joseph Land Marine Ecosystems - Russia, Norway





Continued: Saving rainforests [an error occurred while processing this directive]
Solutions Introduction
Sustainable Forest Products
Large-scale Forest Products
Medicinal Drugs
Logging
Logging (con't)
Oil
Conservation Priorities
Reserve Size & Valuation
Organization
Intergovernmental Institutions
Communication, Education
Indigenous people
- - - -
References (1)
References (2)
References (3)
References (4)
References (5)
Eco-tourism
Foods & Genetic Diversity
Medicinal Drugs & Pesticides
Logging (con't)
Cattle
Increasing Productivity
Types of Reserves
Funding
Developing nations
NGOs
International Organizations
Conclusion

- - - -
Kids version of this section
- How can we save rainforests?
- Education
- Rehabilitation
- Sustainable development
- Parks
- Eco-friendly companies
- Ecotourism
- What you can do


Selection of information sources








For kids

Tour: the Amazon

Rainforest news

Tour: Indonesia's rainforests

 Home
 What's New
 About
 Rainforests
   Mission
   Introduction
   Characteristics
   Biodiversity
   The Canopy
   Forest Floor
   Forest Waters
   Indigenous People
   Deforestation
   Consequences
   Saving Rainforests
   Amazon
   Borneo
   Congo
   New Guinea
   Sulawesi
   REDD
   Country Profiles
   Statistics
   Works Cited
   For Kids
   For Teachers
   Photos/Images
   Expert Interviews
   Rainforest News
  Forest data
   Forest loss tracker
   Global deforestation
   Tropical deforestation
   By country
   Deforestation charts
   Regional forest data
   Deforestation drivers
 XML Feeds
 Pictures
 Books
 Education
 Newsletter
 Contact

Nature Blog Network



 CONTENTS
Rainforests
Tropical Fish
News
Madagascar
Pictures
Kids' Site
Languages
TCS Journal
About
Archives
Topics | RSS
Newsletter




 Other languages
Arabic
Bengali
Chinese (CN) (expanded)
Chinese (TW)
Croatian
Danish
Dutch
Farsi
French (expanded)
German (expanded)
Greek
Hindi
Hungarian
Indonesian
Italian
Japanese (expanded)
Javanese
Korean
Malagasy
Malay
Marathi
Norwegian
Polish
Portuguese (expanded)
Russian
Slovak
Spanish (expanded)
Swahili
Swedish
Ukrainian



 WEEKLY NEWSLETTER
 Email:


 INTERACT
Facebook
Twitter
Contact
Help
Photo store
Mongabay gear




what's new | rainforests home | for kids | help | madagascar | search | about | languages | contact

Copyright Rhett Butler 1994-2015

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated from mongabay.com operations (server, data transfer, travel) are mitigated through an association with Anthrotect,
an organization working with Afro-indigenous and Embera communities to protect forests in Colombia's Darien region.
Anthrotect is protecting the habitat of mongabay's mascot: the scale-crested pygmy tyrant.

"Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site. "Jungle" is generally not used.