STATISTICS: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina

43.1% —or about 2,185,000 hectares—of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. Of this, 0.1% —or roughly 2,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Bosnia and Herzegovina lost an average of 2,500 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.11%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 100.0% to 0.00% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Bosnia and Herzegovina lost 1.1% of its forest cover, or around 25,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Bosnia and Herzegovina lost 4.4% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Bosnia and Herzegovina has some 425 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.2% are threatened. Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to at least 0 species of vascular plants. 0.5% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Bosnia and Herzegovina: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)5,073,000
Total Forest Area (ha)2,185,000
Percent Forest Cover43.07%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)2,000
Primary Forest, % total forest0.09%
Primary Forest, % total land0.04%
Other wooded land (ha)549,000

Bosnia and Herzegovina : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)19%
Temperate (% forest area)81%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)2,0000.1%
Modified natural (ha | %)1,184,00054.2%
Semi-natural (ha | %)857,00039.2%
Production plantation (ha | %)142,0006.5%
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)2,210,000
Forest 2000 (ha)2,185,000
Forest 2005 (ha)2,185,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(2,500)-0.11%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(25,000)-1.13%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)2,000
Primary 2005 (ha)2,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)500,000
Other 2000 (ha)549,000
Other 2005 (ha)549,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)4,9000.98%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)49,0009.80%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)142,000
Other 2005 (ha)142,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)2,710,000
Other 2000 (ha)2,592,000
Other 2005 (ha)2,592,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(11,800)-0.44%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(118,000)-4.35%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)2,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)2,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.04%

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)78.6%
Private (%)21.4%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)84.0%
Private (%)16.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)56.1%
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)-
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)43.9%

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.55%
Insects (ha)0.46%
Diseases (ha)0.05%
Other (ha)0.05%

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20040
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land0.5%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.34%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.19%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.01%

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species8
endemic species0
threatened species1
total species312
endemic species1
threatened species8
total species78
endemic species0
threatened species8
total species27
endemic species0
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species425
endemic species1
threatened species18

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species97
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened1

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)275
Below-ground biomass (M t)76
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)138
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)38
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)2,993
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)1,146
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)4,139
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)1
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed12,000

Bosnia and Herzegovina : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Environment
Environment - current issuesair pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 13.6%
permanent crops: 2.96%
other: 83.44% (2001)
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Economy
Economy - overview:Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia was saddled with a host of industrial firms with little commercial potential. The interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-05. National-level statistics are limited and do not capture the large share of black market activity. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Western Europe, now control most of the banking sector. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious economic problems. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.
GDP - per capita$6,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5.2% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 14.2%, industry: 30.8%, services: 55% (2002)
Industries steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)
Economic aid - recipient$650 million (2001 est.)
Debt - external$3.1 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)25% (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)4,025,476
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.44%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)78.7
Percent rural (2003)55.7%
Median age (years)total: 36.21 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.71 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)

Largest Cities in Bosnia

Cities and urban areas in Bosnia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
Banja LukaBosnia179200179200

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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