45.7% —or about 21,245,000 hectares—of Cameroon is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Cameroon lost an average of 220,000 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.90%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 9.9% to 0.98% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Cameroon lost 13.4% of its forest cover, or around 3,300,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Cameroon lost 8.4% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Cameroon has some 1661 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 7.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 6.7% are threatened. Cameroon is home to at least 8260 species of vascular plants, of which 1.9% are endemic. 7.4% of Cameroon is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Cameroon Environmental profile


Cameroon: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)46,540,000
Total Forest Area (ha)21,245,000
Percent Forest Cover45.65%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)14,758,000

Cameroon : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Cameroon: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)--
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Cameroon: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)24,545,000
Forest 2000 (ha)22,345,000
Forest 2005 (ha)21,245,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(220,000)-0.90%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(220,000)-0.98%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(3,300,000)-13.44%
Change in rate (%)9.85%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)14,758,000
Other 2000 (ha)14,758,000
Other 2005 (ha)14,758,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)39,303,000
Other 2000 (ha)37,103,000
Other 2005 (ha)36,003,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(220,000)-0.56%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(220,000)-0.59%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(3,300,000)-8.40%
Change in rate (%)5.93%

Cameroon: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Cameroon: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)29.3%
Protection (%)2.7%
Conservation (%)48.6%
Social Services (%)1.0%
Multiple Services (%)18.4%
None of Unknown (%)-

Cameroon: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Cameroon: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20050
World Heritage sites, 20041
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land7.4%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land4.65%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20042.62%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.60%

Cameroon: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species192
endemic species72
threatened species50
total species936
endemic species9
threatened species18
total species322
endemic species15
threatened species42
total species211
endemic species23
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species1661
endemic species119
threatened species111

Cameroon: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species600
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered50
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic156
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened334

Cameroon: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)2,679
Below-ground biomass (M t)1,125
Dead wood (M t)387
Total (M t)4,191
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)1,339
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)563
Carbon in dead wood (M t)193
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)3,211
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)16,561
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)19,772
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)2
Plant products 2005
Food (t)21,246
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed20,000

Cameroon : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Cameroon: Environment
Environment - current issueswaterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsvolcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Cameroon: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 12.81%
permanent crops: 2.58%
other: 84.61% (2001)
Natural resourcespetroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Cameroon: Economy
Economy - overview:Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however, the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs. International oil and cocoa prices have considerable impact on the economy.
GDP - per capita$2,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 44.8%, industry: 17.3%, services: 37.9% (2005 est.)
Industries petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Economic aid - recipienton 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; debt relief now totals $1.26 billion
Debt - external$9.223 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)48% (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%

Cameroon: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)16,380,005
Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.93%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)34.9
Percent rural (2003)48.6%
Median age (years)total: 18.6 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.47 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Largest Cities in Cameroon

Cities and urban areas in Cameroon with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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