Cape Verde

20.8% —or about 84,000 hectares—of Cape Verde is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Cape Verde gained an average of 2,400 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 4.14%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 88.2% to 0.49% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Cape Verde gained 44.8% of its forest cover, or around 26,000 hectares.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Cape Verde has some 160 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 10.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.4% are threatened. Cape Verde is home to at least 774 species of vascular plants, of which 11.1% are endemic. 0.0% of Cape Verde is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Cape Verde: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)403,000
Total Forest Area (ha)84,000
Percent Forest Cover20.84%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)-

Cape Verde : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Cape Verde: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)--
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)67,00079.8%
Production plantation (ha | %)17,00020.2%

Cape Verde: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)58,000
Forest 2000 (ha)82,000
Forest 2005 (ha)84,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)2,4004.14%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)4000.49%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)26,00044.83%
Change in rate (%)-88.21%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)58,000
Other 2000 (ha)82,000
Other 2005 (ha)84,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)2,4004.14%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)4000.49%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)26,00044.83%
Change in rate (%)-88.21%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!

Cape Verde: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Cape Verde: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)80.0%
Protection (%)8.8%
Conservation (%)11.2%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)-

Cape Verde: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Cape Verde: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20050
World Heritage sites, 20040
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land0.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.25%

Cape Verde: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species0
endemic species
threatened species0
total species160
endemic species4
threatened species4
total species0
endemic species0
threatened species3
total species0
endemic species12
threatened species0
Wildlife diversity
total species160
endemic species16
threatened species7

Cape Verde: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species240
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic86
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened2

Cape Verde: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)12
Below-ground biomass (M t)4
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)6
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)2
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)-
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)-
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)-
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)-
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employedn.s.

Cape Verde : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Cape Verde: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsprolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active

Cape Verde: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 9.68%
permanent crops: 0.5%
other: 89.82% (2001)
Natural resourcessalt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum

Cape Verde: Economy
Economy - overview:This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for 72% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 2004 was only 12%, of which fishing accounted for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Future prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the encouragement of tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.
GDP - per capita$6,200 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5.5% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsbananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 12.1%, industry: 21.9%, services: 66% (2004 est.)
Industries food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Economic aid - recipient$136 million (1999)
Debt - external$325 million (2002)
Population below poverty line (%)30% (2000)

Cape Verde: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)418,224
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.67%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)103.7
Percent rural (2003)44.1%
Median age (years)total: 19.4 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)3.48 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Cape Verde: Infrastructure
Telephones - main lines in use71,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular53,300 (2003)
Roadways (km)total: 1,350 km
paved: 1,053 km
unpaved: 297 km (2002)

Cape Verde: Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 70.45 years
male: 67.13 years
female: 73.86 years (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate47.77 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.035% (2001 est.)

Cape Verde : References & Data Sources

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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