2.9% —or about 5,000 hectares—of Comoros is forested. Of this, none is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Comoros lost an average of 400 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 3.33%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 125.0% to 7.50% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Comoros lost 58.3% of its forest cover, or around 7,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Comoros lost 60.0% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Comoros has some 138 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 21.7% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 10.1% are threatened. Comoros is home to at least 721 species of vascular plants, of which 18.9% are endemic. 0.0% of Comoros is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Comoros Environmental profile


Comoros: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)-
Total Forest Area (ha)5,000
Percent Forest Cover-
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest0.00%
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)-

Comoros : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Comoros: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)-0.0%
Modified natural (ha | %)4,00080.0%
Semi-natural (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)1,00020.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Comoros: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)12,000
Forest 2000 (ha)8,000
Forest 2005 (ha)5,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(400)-3.33%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(600)-7.50%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(7,000)-58.33%
Change in rate (%)125.00%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)2,000
Other 2000 (ha)2,000
Other 2005 (ha)1,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(200)-10.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,000)-50.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)10,000
Other 2000 (ha)6,000
Other 2005 (ha)4,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(400)-4.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(400)-6.67%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(6,000)-60.00%
Change in rate (%)66.67%

Comoros: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)0
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)-

Comoros: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)26.6%
Protection (%)73.4%
Conservation (%)0.0%
Social Services (%)0.0%
Multiple Services (%)0.0%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Comoros: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.00%
Insects (ha)0.00%
Diseases (ha)0.00%
Other (ha)0.00%

Comoros: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20040
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land0.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.00%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Comoros: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species0
endemic species
threatened species0
total species138
endemic species19
threatened species10
total species0
endemic species2
threatened species2
total species0
endemic species9
threatened species2
Wildlife diversity
total species138
endemic species30
threatened species14

Comoros: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species62
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered2
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic136
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened5

Comoros: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)1
Below-ground biomass (M t)n.s.
Dead wood (M t)n.s.
Total (M t)2
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)1
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)n.s.
Carbon in dead wood (M t)n.s.
Carbon in litter (M t)n.s.
Soil carbon (M t)n.s.
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)9
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)197
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)206
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)15
Plant products 2005
Food (t)151
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)14
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)6
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$1,600,000
Wood fuel (US$)$2,338,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$366,000
Total value (US$)$4,304,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$790
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed17,000

Comoros : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Comoros: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardscyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Comoros: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 35.87%
permanent crops: 23.32%
other: 40.81% (2001)
Natural resourcesNEGL

Comoros: Economy
Economy - overview:One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government - which is hampered by internal political disputes - is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, improve health services, diversify exports, promote tourism, and reduce the high population growth rate. Increased foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans abroad help supplement GDP.
GDP - per capita$600 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)3% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsvanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 40%, industry: 4%, services: 56% (2001 est.)
Industries tourism, perfume distillation
Economic aid - recipient$24 million (2003 est.)
Debt - external$232 million (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)60% (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 80%

Comoros: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)671,247
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.91%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)309.3
Percent rural (2003)65.0%
Median age (years)total: 18.61 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)5.09 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Comoros: Infrastructure
Telephones - main lines in use13,200 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular2,000 (2003)
Roadways (km)total: 880 km
paved: 673 km
unpaved: 207 km (1999)

Comoros: Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)total population: 61.96 years
male: 59.65 years
female: 64.33 years (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate74.93 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)0.12% (2001 est.)

Comoros : References & Data Sources

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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