38.2% —or about 2,135,000 hectares—of Croatia is forested. Of this, 0.5% —or roughly 10,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Croatia gained an average of 1,300 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.06%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 8.3% to 0.06% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Croatia gained 0.9% of its forest cover, or around 19,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Croatia gained 1.6% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Croatia has some 505 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.8% are threatened. Croatia is home to at least 4288 species of vascular plants. 6.0% of Croatia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Croatia pictures


Croatia: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)5,592,000
Total Forest Area (ha)2,135,000
Percent Forest Cover38.18%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)10,000
Primary Forest, % total forest0.47%
Primary Forest, % total land0.18%
Other wooded land (ha)346,000

Croatia : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)28%
Temperate (% forest area)71%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Croatia: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)10,0000.5%
Modified natural (ha | %)2,063,00096.6%
Semi-natural (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)61,0002.9%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%

Croatia: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)2,116,000
Forest 2000 (ha)2,129,000
Forest 2005 (ha)2,135,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)1,3000.06%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)1,2000.06%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)19,0000.90%
Change in rate (%)-8.26%
Primary 1990 (ha)10,000
Primary 2000 (ha)10,000
Primary 2005 (ha)10,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)322,000
Other 2000 (ha)338,000
Other 2005 (ha)346,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)1,6000.50%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)1,6000.47%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)24,0007.45%
Change in rate (%)-4.73%
Other 1990 (ha)56,000
Other 2000 (ha)60,000
Other 2005 (ha)61,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)4000.71%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)2000.33%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)5,0008.93%
Change in rate (%)-53.33%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)2,382,000
Other 2000 (ha)2,407,000
Other 2005 (ha)2,420,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)2,5000.10%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)2,6000.11%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)38,0001.60%
Change in rate (%)2.92%

Croatia: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)10,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)2,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)12,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.21%

Croatia: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)78.7%
Private (%)21.3%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)97.0%
Private (%)2.7%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)94.7%
Protection (%)2.3%
Conservation (%)0.3%
Social Services (%)0.3%
Multiple Services (%)2.4%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Croatia: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.28%
Insects (ha)0.56%
Diseases (ha)0.42%
Other (ha)0.19%

Croatia: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20054
World Heritage sites, 20046
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land6.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land1.01%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20044.98%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.39%

Croatia: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species10
endemic species0
threatened species2
total species365
endemic species2
threatened species9
total species96
endemic species0
threatened species7
total species34
endemic species0
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species505
endemic species2
threatened species19

Croatia: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species59
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened0

Croatia: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)304
Below-ground biomass (M t)80
Dead wood (M t)54
Total (M t)439
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)152
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)40
Carbon in dead wood (M t)27
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)3,662
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)1,288
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)4,950
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)1
Plant products 2005
Food (t)400
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)40
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)1,200
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)300
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$244,502,000
Wood fuel (US$)$18,304,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$874,000
Total value (US$)$263,681,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$124
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed10,000

Croatia : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Croatia: Environment
Environment - current issuesair pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes

Croatia: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 26.09%
permanent crops: 2.27%
other: 71.65% (2001)
Natural resourcesoil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Croatia: Economy
Economy - overview:Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. The economy emerged from a mild recession in 2000 with tourism, banking, and public investments leading the way. Unemployment remains high, at about 18 percent, with structural factors slowing its decline. While macroeconomic stabilization has largely been achieved, structural reforms lag because of deep resistance on the part of the public and lack of strong support from politicians. Growth, while impressively about 3% to 4% for the last several years, has been stimulated, in part, through high fiscal deficits and rapid credit growth. The EU accession process should accelerate fiscal and structural reform.
GDP - per capita$11,600 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)3.2% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 8.1%, industry: 31%, services: 60.8% (2005 est.)
Industries chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism
Economic aid - recipientODA $166.5 million (2002)
Debt - external$29.28 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)11% (2003)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 2.7%, industry 32.8%, services 64.5% (2004)

Croatia: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)4,495,904
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.02%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)79.7
Percent rural (2003)41.0%
Median age (years)total: 39.97 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.39 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)

Largest Cities in Croatia

Cities and urban areas in Croatia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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