21.5% —or about 1,976,000 hectares—of Hungary is forested. Of this, none is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Hungary gained an average of 10,600 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.59%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 23.0% to 0.72% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Hungary gained 9.7% of its forest cover, or around 175,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Hungary gained 4.5% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Hungary has some 490 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.5% are threatened. Hungary is home to at least 2214 species of vascular plants, of which 1.7% are endemic. 8.8% of Hungary is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Hungary: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)9,211,000
Total Forest Area (ha)1,976,000
Percent Forest Cover21.45%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest0.00%
Primary Forest, % total land0.00%
Other wooded land (ha)-

Hungary : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)100%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Hungary: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)-0.0%
Modified natural (ha | %)415,00021.0%
Semi-natural (ha | %)1,016,00051.4%
Production plantation (ha | %)454,00023.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)91,0004.6%

Hungary: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)1,801,000
Forest 2000 (ha)1,907,000
Forest 2005 (ha)1,976,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)10,6000.59%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)13,8000.72%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)175,0009.72%
Change in rate (%)22.95%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-#DIV/0!
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)431,000
Other 2000 (ha)528,000
Other 2005 (ha)545,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)9,7002.25%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)3,4000.64%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)114,00026.45%
Change in rate (%)-71.39%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)1,370,000
Other 2000 (ha)1,379,000
Other 2005 (ha)1,431,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)9000.07%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)10,4000.75%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)61,0004.45%
Change in rate (%)1048.01%

Hungary: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)0
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Hungary: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)60.5%
Private (%)39.5%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)64.5%
Protection (%)13.3%
Conservation (%)20.6%
Social Services (%)1.5%
Multiple Services (%)0.0%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Hungary: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.42%
Insects (ha)4.40%
Diseases (ha)3.09%
Other (ha)24.49%

Hungary: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 200523
World Heritage sites, 20048
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land8.8%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land2.41%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20046.41%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.10%

Hungary: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species17
endemic species0
threatened species0
total species367
endemic species2
threatened species9
total species88
endemic species0
threatened species7
total species18
endemic species0
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species490
endemic species2
threatened species17

Hungary: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species47
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered1
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic38
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened1

Hungary: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)257
Below-ground biomass (M t)83
Dead wood (M t)n.s.
Total (M t)340
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)131
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)42
Carbon in dead wood (M t)n.s.
Carbon in litter (M t)56
Soil carbon (M t)73
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)3,421
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)2,107
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)5,528
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)2
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$213,061,000
Wood fuel (US$)$150,141,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$363,202,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$184
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed12,000

Hungary : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Hungary: Environment
Environment - current issuesthe upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Hungary: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 50.09%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 47.85% (2001)
Natural resourcesbauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Hungary: Economy
Economy - overview:Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income one-half that of the Big Four European nations. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and acceded to the European Union in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 and together with the Czech Republic holds the highest rating among the Central European transition economies; however, ratings agencies have expressed concerns over Hungary's unsustainable budget and current account deficits. Inflation has declined from 14% in 1998 to 3.7% in 2005. Unemployment has persisted around the 6% level, but Hungary's labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the OECD. Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008, from about 6.5% in 2005, and orchestrating an orderly interest rate reduction without sparking capital outflows.
GDP - per capita$15,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)3.7% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 3.9%, industry: 30.9%, services: 65.3% (2005 est.)
Industries mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Economic aid - recipient$4.2 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)
Debt - external$76.23 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)8.6% (1993 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 6.2%, industry 27.1%, services 66.7% (2002)

Hungary: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)10,006,835
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.26%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)108.4
Percent rural (2003)34.9%
Median age (years)total: 38.57 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.32 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)

Largest Cities in Hungary

Cities and urban areas in Hungary with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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