STATISTICS: Mozambique


24.6% —or about 19,262,000 hectares—of Mozambique is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Mozambique lost an average of 50,000 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.25%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 2.6% to 0.26% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Mozambique lost 3.8% of its forest cover, or around 750,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Mozambique lost 3.6% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Mozambique has some 1167 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.5% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 3.7% are threatened. Mozambique is home to at least 5692 species of vascular plants, of which 3.8% are endemic. 4.2% of Mozambique is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Mozambique Environmental profile


Mozambique: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)78,409,000
Total Forest Area (ha)19,262,000
Percent Forest Cover24.57%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)40,919,000

Mozambique : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Mozambique: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)19,224,00099.8%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)38,0000.2%
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Mozambique: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)20,012,000
Forest 2000 (ha)19,512,000
Forest 2005 (ha)19,262,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(50,000)-0.25%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(50,000)-0.26%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(750,000)-3.75%
Change in rate (%)2.56%
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)42,419,000
Other 2000 (ha)41,419,000
Other 2005 (ha)40,919,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(100,000)-0.24%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(100,000)-0.24%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,500,000)-3.54%
Change in rate (%)2.41%
Other 1990 (ha)38,000
Other 2000 (ha)38,000
Other 2005 (ha)38,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)62,393,000
Other 2000 (ha)60,893,000
Other 2005 (ha)60,143,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(150,000)-0.24%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(150,000)-0.25%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(2,250,000)-3.61%
Change in rate (%)2.46%

Mozambique: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%

Mozambique: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)17.5%
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)2.3%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)80.2%
None of Unknown (%)-

Mozambique: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)-
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Mozambique: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20051
World Heritage sites, 20041
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land4.2%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land1.96%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20042.13%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20041.55%

Mozambique: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species59
endemic species0
threatened species3
total species685
endemic species2
threatened species23
total species228
endemic species3
threatened species12
total species195
endemic species12
threatened species5
Wildlife diversity
total species1167
endemic species17
threatened species43

Mozambique: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species-
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered4
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic219
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened46

Mozambique: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)978
Below-ground biomass (M t)235
Dead wood (M t)170
Total (M t)1,382
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)489
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)117
Carbon in dead wood (M t)85
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)1,732
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)20,297
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)22,029
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)4
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed12,000

Mozambique : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Mozambique: Environment
Environment - current issuesa long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardssevere droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces

Mozambique: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 5.1%
permanent crops: 0.3%
other: 94.6% (2001)
Natural resourcescoal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite

Mozambique: Economy
Economy - overview:At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-03. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's workforce. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the MOZAL aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. In late 2005, and after years of negotiations, the government signed an agreement to gain Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
GDP - per capita$1,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)7% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 24.2%, industry: 41.2%, services: 34.6% (2005 est.)
Industries food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Economic aid - recipient$632.8 million (2001)
Debt - external$966 million (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)70% (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)

Mozambique: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)19,406,703
Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.48%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)24.8
Percent rural (2003)64.4%
Median age (years)total: 18.29 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.7 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Largest Cities in Mozambique

Cities and urban areas in Mozambique with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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