STATISTICS: Pakistan


Pakistan

2.5% —or about 1,902,000 hectares—of Pakistan is forested.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Pakistan lost an average of 41,100 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.63%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 24.4% to 2.02% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Pakistan lost 24.7% of its forest cover, or around 625,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Pakistan has some 1027 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 3.5% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.5% are threatened. Pakistan is home to at least 4950 species of vascular plants, of which 7.5% are endemic. 4.0% of Pakistan is protected under IUCN categories I-V.






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Pakistan: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)77,088,000
Total Forest Area (ha)1,902,000
Percent Forest Cover2.47%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)-
Primary Forest, % total forest-
Primary Forest, % total land-
Other wooded land (ha)1,389,000


Pakistan : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)2%
Subtropical (% forest area)98%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%


Pakistan: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)--
Modified natural (ha | %)1,584,00083.3%
Semi-natural (ha | %)--
Production plantation (ha | %)318,00016.7%
Production plantation (ha | %)--


Pakistan: Change in Forest Cover
TOTAL FOREST COVER
Forest 1990 (ha)2,527,000
Forest 2000 (ha)2,116,000
Forest 2005 (ha)1,902,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(41,100)-1.63%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(42,800)-2.02%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(625,000)-24.73%
Change in rate (%)24.36%
PRIMARY FOREST COVER
Primary 1990 (ha)-
Primary 2000 (ha)-
Primary 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
OTHER WOODED LAND
Other 1990 (ha)1,191,000
Other 2000 (ha)1,323,000
Other 2005 (ha)1,389,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)13,2001.11%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)13,2001.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)198,00016.62%
Change in rate (%)-9.98%
PLANTATIONS
Other 1990 (ha)234,000
Other 2000 (ha)296,000
Other 2005 (ha)318,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)6,2002.65%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)4,4001.49%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)84,00035.90%
Change in rate (%)-43.90%
TOTAL DEGRADATION/CONSERVSION
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)3,484,000
Other 2000 (ha)3,143,000
Other 2005 (ha)2,973,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(34,100)-0.98%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(34,000)-1.08%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(511,000)-14.67%
Change in rate (%)10.52%


Pakistan: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.00%


Pakistan: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)66.0%
Private (%)34.0%
Other (%)-
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)66.0%
Private (%)34.0%
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)32.0%
Protection (%)-
Conservation (%)11.4%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)56.7%
None of Unknown (%)-


Pakistan: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)1.94%
Insects (ha)0.47%
Diseases (ha)3.31%
Other (ha)-


Pakistan: Protected areas
1
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 200519
World Heritage sites, 20046
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land4.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.90%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20043.51%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%


Pakistan: Biodiversity - Wildlife
Amphibians
total species17
endemic species3
threatened species0
Birds
total species625
endemic species6
threatened species30
Mammals
total species195
endemic species4
threatened species17
Reptiles
total species190
endemic species23
threatened species9
Wildlife diversity
total species1027
endemic species36
threatened species56


Pakistan: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
67.30%
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
87.20%
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species1,104
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Endangered0
Vulnerable2
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Total4950
Number endemic372
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened2


Pakistan: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)381
Below-ground biomass (M t)135
Dead wood (M t)57
Total (M t)573
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)191
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)68
Carbon in dead wood (M t)28
Carbon in litter (M t)4
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
1990-2000-5,000
2000-2005-5,200
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
1990-2000-0.36
2000-2005-0.49
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)2,301
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)31,603
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)33,904
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)18
Plant products 2005
Food (t)47,842
Fodder (t)3,900,000
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)616
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)43,000
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)34,450
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)3,184
Other plant products (t)235
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)50
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)238
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$113,116,000
Wood fuel (US$)$1,380,971,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$33,807,000
Total value (US$)$1,527,894,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$803
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed30,000


Pakistan : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production25,013
Imports0
Exports-
Consumption25,013
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production1,605
Imports295
Exports0
Consumption1,310
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production1,180
Imports28
Exports0
Consumption1,208
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production354
Imports57
Exports0
Consumption411
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production335
Imports31
Exports-
Consumption366
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production1,165
Imports167
Exports0
Consumption1,332
Pakistan: Environment
Environment - current issueswater pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)


Pakistan: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 27.87%
permanent crops: 0.87%
other: 71.26% (2001)
Natural resourcesland, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone


Pakistan: Economy
Economy - overview:Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last four years. The government has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 2000, although progress on more politically sensitive reforms has slowed. For example, in the budget for fiscal year 2006, Islamabad did not impose taxes on the agriculture or real estate sectors, despite Pakistan's chronically low tax-to-GDP ratio. While long-term prospects remain uncertain, given Pakistan's low level of development, medium-term prospects for job creation and poverty reduction are the best in more than a decade. Islamabad has raised development spending from about 2% of GDP in the 1990s to 4% in 2003, a necessary step towards reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. GDP growth, spurred by double-digit gains in industrial production over the past year, has become less dependent on agriculture, and remained above 7% in 2004 and 2005. Inflation remains the biggest threat to the economy, jumping to more than 9% in 2005. The World Bank and Asian Development Bank announced that they would provide US $1 billion each in aid to help Pakistan rebuild areas hit by the October 2005 earthquake in Kashmir. Foreign exchange reserves continued to reach new levels in 2005, supported by steady worker remittances.
GDP - per capita$2,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)8.4% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 21.6%, industry: 25.1%, services: 53.3% (2005 est.)
Industries textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Economic aid - recipient$2.4 billion (FY01/02)
Debt - external$39.94 billion (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)32% (FY00/01 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 42%, industry 20%, services 38% (2004 est.)


Pakistan: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)162,419,946
Population growth rate (%) (2005)2.03%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)208.6
Percent rural (2003)65.9%
Median age (years)total: 19.58 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)4.14 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)


Largest Cities in Pakistan

Cities and urban areas in Pakistan with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
KarachiPakistan1027250010272500
LahorePakistan56115005611500
FaisalabadPakistan21912002191200
RawalpindiPakistan15584002548900
GujranwalaPakistan13493001828600
MultanPakistan13104001310400
HyderabadPakistan12759001363100
PeshawarPakistan10949001094900
QuettaPakistan620900620900
IslamabadPakistan586500586500
SargodhaPakistan504600504600
SialkotPakistan462800462800
BahawalpurPakistan447100447100
SukkurPakistan364800364800
JhangPakistan323800323800
ShekhupuraPakistan301300301300
LarkanaPakistan299600299600
OkaraPakistan286300286300
GujratPakistan277200277200
MardanPakistan271000271000
KasurPakistan267800267800
Rahim Yar KhanPakistan253200253200
SahiwalPakistan229800229800
WahPakistan219900219900
Dera Ghazi KhanPakistan208500208500
Mirpur KhasPakistan204400204400
NawabshahPakistan202900202900
MingaoraPakistan193400193400
ChiniotPakistan187600187600
KamokePakistan167300167300
BurewalaPakistan166100166100
JhelumPakistan161600161600
SadiqabadPakistan156800156800
JacobabadPakistan152600152600
ShikarpurPakistan147700147700
KhanewalPakistan147400147400
HafizabadPakistan144300144300
KohatPakistan138800138800
MuzaffargarhPakistan134800134800
KhanpurPakistan130500130500
GojraPakistan127400127400
BahawalnagarPakistan121500121500
MuridkePakistan120300120300
PakpattanPakistan119500119500
AbottabadPakistan117500117500
Tando adamPakistan114600114600
JaranwalaPakistan114500114500
KhairpurPakistan113200113200
Chishtian MandiPakistan112700112700
DaskaPakistan112500112500
DaduPakistan109200109200
Mandi BahauddinPakistan107900107900
Ahmadpur EastPakistan106400106400
KamaliaPakistan105600105600
KhuzdarPakistan103100103100
VihariPakistan102300102300
Dera Ismail KhanPakistan100100100100




 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



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