53.7% —or about 68,742,000 hectares—of Peru is forested. Of this, 88.8% —or roughly 61,065,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Peru lost an average of 94,300 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.13%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 1.3% to 0.14% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Peru lost 2.0% of its forest cover, or around 1,414,000 hectares. Peru lost -1,845,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have decreased 2.9% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Peru gained 28.9% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Peru has some 2937 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 16.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 7.6% are threatened. Peru is home to at least 17144 species of vascular plants, of which 31.2% are endemic. 3.1% of Peru is protected under IUCN categories I-V.

Peru Environmental profile | Peru pictures


Peru: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)128,000,000
Total Forest Area (ha)68,742,000
Percent Forest Cover53.70%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)61,065,000
Primary Forest, % total forest88.83%
Primary Forest, % total land47.71%
Other wooded land (ha)22,132,000

Peru : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)100%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)0%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Peru: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)61,065,00088.8%
Modified natural (ha | %)6,923,00010.1%
Semi-natural (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)754,0001.1%
Production plantation (ha | %)--

Peru: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)70,156,000
Forest 2000 (ha)69,213,000
Forest 2005 (ha)68,742,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(94,300)-0.13%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(94,200)-0.14%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,414,000)-2.02%
Change in rate (%)1.25%
Primary 1990 (ha)62,910,000
Primary 2000 (ha)62,188,000
Primary 2005 (ha)61,065,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(72,200)-0.11%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(224,600)-0.36%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(1,845,000)-2.93%
Change in rate (%)214.69%
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)22,132,000
Other 2005 (ha)22,132,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
Other 1990 (ha)263,000
Other 2000 (ha)715,000
Other 2005 (ha)754,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)45,20017.19%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)7,8001.09%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)491,000186.69%
Change in rate (%)-93.65%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)69,893,000
Other 2000 (ha)90,630,000
Other 2005 (ha)90,120,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)2,073,7002.97%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(102,000)-0.11%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)20,227,00028.94%
Change in rate (%)-103.79%

Peru: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)61,065,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)2,213,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)63,278,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)49.44%

Peru: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)83.1%
Private (%)15.2%
Other (%)1.7%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)0.8%
Private (%)0.1%
Other (%)99.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)36.7%
Protection (%)0.5%
Conservation (%)26.9%
Social Services (%)0.0%
Multiple Services (%)26.0%
None of Unknown (%)9.9%

Peru: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.05%
Insects (ha)-
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Peru: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 200510
World Heritage sites, 200410
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land3.1%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land2.85%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.27%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Peru: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species361
endemic species176
threatened species78
total species1781
endemic species125
threatened species94
total species441
endemic species48
threatened species46
total species354
endemic species122
threatened species6
Wildlife diversity
total species2937
endemic species471
threatened species224

Peru: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species2,500
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered33
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic5356
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened274

Peru: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)-
Below-ground biomass (M t)-
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)-
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)-
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)1,891
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)8,898
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)10,789
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)-
Plant products 2005
Food (t)10
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)296
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)10,074
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)155
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)5
Other plant products (t)1,977
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$4,409,000
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$4,409,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$n.s.
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed120,000

Peru : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Peru: Environment
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsearthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Peru: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 2.89%
permanent crops: 0.4%
other: 96.71% (2001)
Natural resourcescopper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Peru: Economy
Economy - overview:Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4 percent per year during the period 2002-2005, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, the TOLEDO administration remained unpopular in 2005, and unemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth will be driven by the Camisea natural gas megaproject and by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products. Peru is expected to sign a free-trade agreement with the United States in early 2006.
GDP - per capita$6,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)5.6% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 8%, industry: 27%, services: 65% (2003 est.)
Industries mining and refining of minerals and metals, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing, steel, metal fabrication
Economic aid - recipient$491 million (2002)
Debt - external$30.18 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)54% (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 9%, industry 18%, services 73% (2001)

Peru: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)27,925,628
Population growth rate (%) (2005)1.36%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)21.8
Percent rural (2003)26.1%
Median age (years)total: 24.95 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)2.56 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Largest Cities in Peru

Cities and urban areas in Peru with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
Chincha AltaPeru127200127200

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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