STATISTICS: Poland


Poland

30.0% —or about 9,192,000 hectares—of Poland is forested. Of this, 0.6% —or roughly 53,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Poland gained an average of 17,800 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.20%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 46.5% to 0.29% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Poland gained 3.5% of its forest cover, or around 311,000 hectares. Poland lost 23,000 hectares—1—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have increased 76.7% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Poland gained 3.5% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Poland has some 563 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.4% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.3% are threatened. Poland is home to at least 2450 species of vascular plants, of which 0.1% are endemic. 11.0% of Poland is protected under IUCN categories I-V.






Books

Poland: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)30,629,000
Total Forest Area (ha)9,192,000
Percent Forest Cover30.01%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)53,000
Primary Forest, % total forest0.58%
Primary Forest, % total land0.17%
Other wooded land (ha)-


Poland : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)0%
Temperate (% forest area)100%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%


Poland: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)53,0000.6%
Modified natural (ha | %)--
Semi-natural (ha | %)9,107,00099.1%
Production plantation (ha | %)32,0000.3%
Production plantation (ha | %)--


Poland: Change in Forest Cover
TOTAL FOREST COVER
Forest 1990 (ha)8,881,000
Forest 2000 (ha)9,059,000
Forest 2005 (ha)9,192,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)17,8000.20%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)26,6000.29%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)311,0003.50%
Change in rate (%)46.50%
PRIMARY FOREST COVER
Primary 1990 (ha)30,000
Primary 2000 (ha)51,000
Primary 2005 (ha)53,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)2,1007.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)4000.78%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)23,00076.67%
Change in rate (%)-88.80%
OTHER WOODED LAND
Other 1990 (ha)-
Other 2000 (ha)-
Other 2005 (ha)-
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)--
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)--
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)--
Change in rate (%)-
PLANTATIONS
Other 1990 (ha)32,000
Other 2000 (ha)32,000
Other 2005 (ha)32,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
TOTAL DEGRADATION/CONSERVSION
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)8,849,000
Other 2000 (ha)9,027,000
Other 2005 (ha)9,160,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)17,8000.20%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)26,6000.29%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)311,0003.51%
Change in rate (%)46.49%


Poland: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)53,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)53,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.17%


Poland: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)83.2%
Private (%)16.8%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)-
Private (%)-
Other (%)-
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)63.5%
Protection (%)20.7%
Conservation (%)4.8%
Social Services (%)11.0%
Multiple Services (%)0.0%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%


Poland: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.07%
Insects (ha)1.32%
Diseases (ha)0.82%
Other (ha)0.22%


Poland: Protected areas
9
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20058
World Heritage sites, 200411
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land11.0%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.77%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 200410.16%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%


Poland: Biodiversity - Wildlife
Amphibians
total species18
endemic species0
threatened species0
Birds
total species424
endemic species2
threatened species12
Mammals
total species110
endemic species0
threatened species12
Reptiles
total species11
endemic species0
threatened species0
Wildlife diversity
total species563
endemic species2
threatened species24


Poland: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
-
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
-
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species57
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Endangered0
Vulnerable1
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Total2450
Number endemic3
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened4


Poland: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)1,379
Below-ground biomass (M t)412
Dead wood (M t)13
Total (M t)1,804
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)690
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)206
Carbon in dead wood (M t)7
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
1990-200025,120
2000-200525,660
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
1990-20002.44
2000-20052.24
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)31,692
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)1,323
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)33,015
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)2
Plant products 2005
Food (t)15,088
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)843
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)1,000
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)3,469
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)10,456
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$833,344,000
Wood fuel (US$)$29,957,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)$21,739,000
Total value (US$)$885,040,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$96
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed60,000


Poland : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production1,536
Imports0
Exports47
Consumption1,499
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production25,040
Imports726
Exports676
Consumption25,090
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production2,910
Imports496
Exports789
Consumption2,617
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Production5,197
Imports946
Exports1,610
Consumption4,533
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production1,013
Imports370
Exports29
Consumption1,354
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Production2,230
Imports1,475
Exports1,125
Consumption2,580
Poland: Environment
Environment - current issuessituation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to European Union code, but at substantial cost to business and the government
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Natural hazardsflooding


Poland: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 45.91%
permanent crops: 1.12%
other: 52.97% (2001)
Natural resourcescoal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land


Poland: Economy
Economy - overview:Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of economic liberalization throughout the 1990s and today stands out as a success story among transition economies. Even so, much remains to be done, especially in bringing down the unemployment rate-currently the highest in the EU. The privatization of small and medium-sized state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms has encouraged the development of the private business sector, but legal and bureaucratic obstacles alongside persistent corruption are hampering its further development. Poland's agricultural sector remains handicapped by surplus labor, inefficient small farms, and lack of investment. Restructuring and privatization of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal, steel, railroads, and energy), while recently initiated, have stalled. Reforms in health care, education, the pension system, and state administration have resulted in larger-than-expected fiscal pressures. Further progress in public finance depends mainly on reducing losses in Polish state enterprises, restraining entitlements, and overhauling the tax code to incorporate the growing gray economy and farmers, most of whom pay no tax. The previous Socialist-led government introduced a package of social and administrative spending cuts to reduce public spending by about $17 billion through 2007, but full implementation of the plan was trumped by election-year politics in 2005. The right-wing Law and Justice party won parliamentary elections in September, and Lech KACZYNSKI won the presidential election in October, running on a state-interventionist fiscal and monetary platform. Poland joined the EU in May 2004, and surging exports to the EU contributed to Poland's strong growth in 2004, though its competitiveness could be threatened by the zloty's appreciation. GDP per capita roughly equals that of the three Baltic states. Poland stands to benefit from nearly $23.2 billion in EU funds, available through 2006. Farmers have already begun to reap the rewards of membership via booming exports, higher food prices, and EU agricultural subsidies.
GDP - per capita$12,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)3.3% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productspotatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 2.8%, industry: 31.7%, services: 65.5% (2005 est.)
Industries machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Economic aid - recipient$13.9 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)
Debt - external$123.4 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line (%)17% (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 16.1%, industry 29%, services 54.9% (2002)


Poland: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)38,635,144
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.03%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)126.9
Percent rural (2003)38.1%
Median age (years)total: 36.43 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.39 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Belarusian 0.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 2.7% (2002 census)


Largest Cities in Poland

Cities and urban areas in Poland with population over 100,000
[For more population information including updated figures and a wider selection of cities please visit
The World Gazetteer]

--> All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
WarszawaPoland16098002202000
LodzPoland7837001013300
KrakowPoland734400783100
WroclawPoland633400633400
PoznanPoland580700635900
GdanskPoland457100866800
SzczecinPoland416000505300
BydgoszczPoland385100385100
LublinPoland354700354700
KatowicePoland3364002657100
BialystokPoland286900286900
GdyniaPoland258700258700
CzestochowaPoland252900252900
SosnowiecPoland237800237800
RadomPoland230200230200
KielcePoland209800209800
GliwicePoland207400207400
TorunPoland205900205900
Bielsko-BialaPoland177600177600
OlsztynPoland176100176100
RzeszowPoland163100163100
RybnikPoland143000143000
WalbrzychPoland133200133200
PlockPoland130700130700
ElblagPoland130600130600
OpolePoland129100129100
Gorzow WielkopolskiPoland127300127300
WloclawekPoland123600123600
TarnowPoland121500121500
Zielona GoraPoland120100120100
KoszalinPoland113300113300
LegnicaPoland108800108800
KaliszPoland106500106500
GrudziadzPoland102600102600
SlupskPoland102100102100
Jastrzebie-ZdrojPoland100600100600




 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of mongabay.com



Tropical rainforest information

 World Rainforests
 Rainforest Structure
 Rainforest Biodiversity
 Canopy
 Forest Floor
 Rainforest Waters
 Indigenous People
 Deforestation
 Global Importance


 Rainforest Conservation
 Country Reports update soon
 References
 Deforestation Tables
 The Amazon Rainforest update soon
 The Congo Rainforest update soon
 Deforestation in Brazil
 Rainforest Images




Google
  Web
mongabay.com
Mongabay Rainforests
Mongabay News
Mongabay Photos

what's new | rainforests home | help support the site | madagascar | search | about | contact

Copyright Rhett Butler 1994-2006

"Rainforest" is used interchangeably with "rain forest" on this site.
Same for "rainforests" and "rain forests". "Jungle" is generally not used.