41.3% —or about 3,783,000 hectares—of Portugal is forested. Of this, 1.5% —or roughly 55,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Portugal gained an average of 48,400 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 1.56%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 28.5% to 1.12% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Portugal gained 22.1% of its forest cover, or around 684,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Portugal lost 5.5% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Portugal has some 664 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 1.2% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.7% are threatened. Portugal is home to at least 5050 species of vascular plants, of which 3.0% are endemic. 4.4% of Portugal is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Portugal: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)9,150,000
Total Forest Area (ha)3,783,000
Percent Forest Cover41.34%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)55,000
Primary Forest, % total forest1.45%
Primary Forest, % total land0.60%
Other wooded land (ha)84,000

Portugal : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)81%
Temperate (% forest area)19%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Portugal: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)55,0001.5%
Modified natural (ha | %)--
Semi-natural (ha | %)2,494,00065.9%
Production plantation (ha | %)1,067,00028.2%
Production plantation (ha | %)167,0004.4%

Portugal: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)3,099,000
Forest 2000 (ha)3,583,000
Forest 2005 (ha)3,783,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)48,4001.56%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)40,0001.12%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)684,00022.07%
Change in rate (%)-28.52%
Primary 1990 (ha)55,000
Primary 2000 (ha)55,000
Primary 2005 (ha)55,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)236,000
Other 2000 (ha)84,000
Other 2005 (ha)84,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(15,200)-6.44%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(152,000)-64.41%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%
Other 1990 (ha)550,000
Other 2000 (ha)1,034,000
Other 2005 (ha)1,234,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)48,4008.80%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)40,0003.87%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)684,000124.36%
Change in rate (%)-56.04%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)2,785,000
Other 2000 (ha)2,633,000
Other 2005 (ha)2,633,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(15,200)-0.55%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(152,000)-5.46%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%

Portugal: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)55,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)44,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)99,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)1.08%

Portugal: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)7.3%
Private (%)92.7%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)22.6%
Private (%)77.4%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest – primary function 2005
Production (%)78.0%
Protection (%)5.7%
Conservation (%)16.3%
Social Services (%)-
Multiple Services (%)-
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Portugal: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)3.49%
Insects (ha)5.27%
Diseases (ha)5.27%
Other (ha)2.51%

Portugal: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 200512
World Heritage sites, 200412
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land4.4%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land0.35%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20043.99%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Portugal: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species20
endemic species0
threatened species0
total species501
endemic species4
threatened species15
total species105
endemic species1
threatened species15
total species38
endemic species3
threatened species1
Wildlife diversity
total species664
endemic species8
threatened species31

Portugal: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species51
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered1
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic150
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened15

Portugal: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)146
Below-ground biomass (M t)82
Dead wood (M t)-
Total (M t)-
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)73
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)41
Carbon in dead wood (M t)-
Carbon in litter (M t)-
Soil carbon (M t)-
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)10,433
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)690
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)11,123
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)3
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed11,000

Portugal : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Portugal: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
Natural hazardsAzores subject to severe earthquakes

Portugal: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 21.75%
permanent crops: 7.81%
other: 70.44% (2001)
Natural resourcesfish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Portugal: Economy
Economy - overview:Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past decade, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth had been above the EU average for much of the past decade, but fell back in 2001-05. GDP per capita stands at two-thirds that of the Big Four EU economies. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost Portugal's economic competitiveness while keeping the budget deficit within the eurozone's 3%-of-GDP ceiling.
GDP - per capita$18,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)0.7% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, swine, poultry, fish, dairy products
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 5.2%, industry: 28.9%, services: 65.9% (2005 est.)
Industries textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metals and metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; rubber and plastic products; ceramics; electronics and communications equipment; rail transportation equipment; aerospace equipment; ship construction and refurbishment; wine; tourism
Population below poverty line (%)NA
Debt - external$298.7 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 10%, industry 30%, services 60% (1999 est.)

Portugal: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)10,566,212
Population growth rate (%) (2005)0.39%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)114.9
Percent rural (2003)45.4%
Median age (years)total: 38.2 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.47 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Largest Cities in Portugal

Cities and urban areas in Portugal with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population
Lisbon [Lisboa]Portugal5581002612300

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World’s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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